Bernard Law Montgomery citáty
Bernard Law Montgomery
Datum narození: 17. listopad 1887
Datum úmrtí: 24. březen 1976
Polní maršál Bernard Law Montgomery, 1. vikomt z El Alamejnu byl britský polní maršál, jeden z nejvýznamnějších britských velitelů druhé světové války. Později byl povýšen do šlechtického stavu jako 1. vikomt z El Alameinu. Stal se tak příslušníkem britské vyšší šlechty.
Do armády vstoupil ve dvaceti letech. Bojoval v první světové válce, mimo jiné v první bitvě u Ypres, kde byl zraněn, a v bitvě na Sommě. Obdržel DSO a válku zakončil v hodnosti plukovníka. Po válce sloužil v Irsku, Palestině a Indii, mezi tím se v roce 1927 oženil s Elizabeth Caver. 5. srpna 1938 byl povýšen do generálské hodnosti.
V době propuknutí druhé světové války velel části britského expedičního sboru dislokovaného v Belgii , jeho nadprůměrnému výkonu je přičítána úspěšná evakuace jeho mužů jakož i řady dalších od Dunkerque. V srpnu 1942 převzal velení britské 8. armády v severní Africe a porazil německé síly v bitvě u El Alamejnu. Vytlačil německé jednotky z Egypta a Libye až k Tunisu, kde spojil své úsilí s americkými jednotkami vyloděnými v Alžíru. V únoru přešly Montgomeryho síly pod velení amerického generála Eisenhowera a zúčastnily se dobytí Tunisu a invazí na Sicílii a do Itálie. V roce 1944 byl Montgomery povýšen do hodnosti polního maršála a velel spojeneckým silám během vylodění v Normandii v červnu 1944. Od srpna téhož roku vedl britské jednotky, které osvobodily Belgii. V září 1944 sice neuspěl s operací Market Garden, při níž se pokusil obsadit mosty v Arnhemu a Nijmegenu přes řeku Rýn. Jeho jednotky zakrátko vpadly do severního Německa a vstoupily do Dánska. Do února 1946 stál v čele britské okupační správy v Německu, poté se stal náčelníkem generálního štábu Britského impéria. Téhož roku mu byl udělen titul 1. vikomt Montgomery z Alamejnu. V dubnu 1951 se stal zástupcem nejvyššího velitele NATO. 18. září 1958 odešel do výslužby. Byl anglický poválečný hrdina.
Citáty Bernard Law Montgomery
Speech at Woodford, October 1959
„The frightful casualties appalled me. The so-called "good fighting generals" of the war appeared to me to be those who had a complete disregard for human life. There were of course exceptions and I suppose one was Plumer; I had only once seen him and I had never spoken to him.“
Regarding the generals of the First World War. 1 http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/2WWmontgomery.htm
„The time has come to deal the enemy a terrific blow in Western Europe.
The blow will be struck by the combined sea, land and air forces of the Allies together constituting one great Allied team, under the supreme command of General Eisenhower.
On the eve of this great adventure I send my best wishes to every soldier in the Allied team.
To us is given the honour of striking a blow for freedom which will live in history; and in the better days that lie ahead men will speak with pride of our doings. We have a great and a righteous cause.
Let us pray that " The Lord Mighty in Battle " will go forth with our armies, and that His special providence will aid us in the struggle.
I want every soldier to know that I have complete confidence in the successful outcome of the operations that we are now about to begin.
With stout hearts, and with enthusiasm for the contest, let us go forward to victory.
And, as we enter the battle, let us recall the words of a famous soldier spoken many years ago :
"He either fears his fate too much,
Or his deserts are small,
Who dare not put it to the touch,
To win or lose it all. "
Good luck to each one of you. And good hunting on the main land of Europe.“
Personal message to troops of 21st Army Group on the eve of D-Day
„There were many reasons why we did not gain complete success at Arnhem. The following in my view were the main ones. First. The operation was not regarded at Supreme Headquarters as the spearhead of a major Allied movement on the northern flank designed to isolate, and finally to occupy, the Ruhr - the one objective in the West which the Germans could not afford to lose. There is no doubt in my mind that Eisenhower always wanted to give priority to the northern thrust and to scale down the southern one. He ordered this to be done, and he thought that it was being done. It was not being done. Second. The airborne forces at Arnhem were dropped too far away from the vital objective - the bridge. It was some hours before they reached it. I take the blame for this mistake. I should have ordered Second Army and 1st Airborne Corps to arrange that at least one complete Parachute Brigade was dropped quite close to the bridge, so that it could have been captured in a matter of minutes and its defence soundly organised with time to spare. I did not do so. Third. The weather. This turned against us after the first day and we could not carry out much of the later airborne programme. But weather is always an uncertain factor, in war and in peace. This uncertainty we all accepted. It could only have been offset, and the operation made a certainty, by allotting additional resources to the project, so that it became an Allied and not merely a British project. Fourth. The 2nd S. S. Panzer Corps was refitting in the Arnhem area, having limped up there after its mauling in Normandy. We knew it was there. But we were wrong in supposing that it could not fight effectively; its battle state was far beyond our expectation. It was quickly brought into action against the 1st Airborne Division.“
Concerning Operation Market Garden in his autobiography, 'The Memoirs of Field Marshal Montgomery' (1958)
„Rule 1, on page 1 of the book of war, is: "Do not march on Moscow". Various people have tried it, Napoleon and Hitler, and it is no good. That is the first rule. I do not know whether your Lordships will know Rule 2 of war. It is: "Do not go fighting with your land armies in China."“
It is a vast country, with no clearly defined objectives.
In the House of Lords, 30 May 1962 ( Hansard, Col. 227 http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/lords/1962/may/30/the-army-estimates#S5LV0241P0-00791)
„The United States has broken the second rule of war. That is: don't go fighting with your land army on the mainland in Asia. Rule One is, don't march on Moscow. I developed those two rules myself.“
Interview, 2 July, 1968; quoted in New York Times, 3 July, 1968, p. 6.
„I want to impose on everyone that the bad times are over, they are finished! Our mandate from the Prime Minister is to destroy the Axis forces in North Africa…It can be done, and it will be done!“
Said to his troops in North Africa, promising the swift defeat of Rommel
„Leadership is the capacity and will to rally men and women to a common purpose and the character which inspires confidence.“
As quoted in Hearts Touched With Fire: My 500 Favorite Inspirational Quotations (2004) by Elizabeth Hanford Dole, p. 143
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„The British soldier is second to none in the communities of fighting men. Some may possess more élan, others may be better disciplined; but none excels him in all-round character. We require no training in bravery in Britain; we can trust to our own native manliness to see us through. So it is with the soldier. It is his natural pride which gives him his fighting qualities. How often he has stood firm before tyranny and oppression, the last hope of the free world! In the midst of the noise and confusion of the battlefield, the simple homely figure of the British soldier stands out calm and resolute—dominating all around him with his quiet courage, his humour and his cheerfulness, his unflinching acceptance of the situation. May the ideals for which he has struggled never vanish from the world! May he never be forgotten by the nation for which he has fought so nobly! I know better than most to what heights the British soldier can aspire. His greatness is a measure of the greatness of the British character, and I have seen the quality of our race proved again and again on the battlefield.“
Memoirs (London: Collins, 1958), pp. 543-544.