„De Saussur… develops the concept of semiology as the science which studies the functioning of signs in society, and treats linguistics as a branch of such a general science of signs.“

Zdroj: Introduction to semantics, 1962, p. 4

Poslední aktualizace 4. června 2020. Historie
Adam Schaff foto
Adam Schaff1
polský marxistický filozof a teoretik 1913 - 2006

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„All abstract sciences are nothing but the study of relations between signs.“

—  Denis Diderot French Enlightenment philosopher and encyclopædist 1713 - 1784

Dr. Théophile de Bordeu, in “Conversation Between D’Alembert and Diderot”
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„When semiotics posits such concepts as 'sign', it does not act like a science; it acts like philosophy when it posits such abstractions as subject, good and evil, truth or revolution.“

—  Umberto Eco, kniha Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language

[O] : Introduction, 0.6
Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language (1984)
Kontext: When semiotics posits such concepts as 'sign', it does not act like a science; it acts like philosophy when it posits such abstractions as subject, good and evil, truth or revolution. Now, a philosophy is not a science, because its assertions cannot be empirically tested … Philosophical entities exist only insofar as they have been philosophically posited. Outside their philosophical framework, the empirical data that a philosophy organizes lose every possible unity and cohesion.
To walk, to make love, to sleep, to refrain from doing something, to give food to someone else, to eat roast beef on Friday — each is either a physical event or the absence of a physical event, or a relation between two or more physical events. However, each becomes an instance of good, bad, or neutral behavior within a given philosophical framework. Outside such a framework, to eat roast beef is radically different from making love, and making love is always the same sort of activity independent of the legal status of the partners. From a given philosophical point of view, both to eat roast beef on Friday and to make love to x can become instances of 'sin', whereas both to give food to someone and to make love to у can become instances of virtuous action.
Good or bad are theoretical stipulations according to which, by a philosophical decision, many scattered instances of the most different facts or acts become the same thing. It is interesting to remark that also the notions of 'object', 'phenomenon', or 'natural kind', as used by the natural sciences, share the same philosophical nature. This is certainly not the case of specific semiotics or of a human science such as cultural anthropology.

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„Political science is the study of the authoritative allocation of values for a society.“

—  David Easton Canadian academic 1917 - 2014

The Political System: An Inquiry into the State of Political Science (1953)

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„The scientific study of the communication of information in society – “information science” in the sense of an academic discipline…“

—  Brian Campbell Vickery British information theorist 1918 - 2009

Zdroj: Information Science in Theory and Practice (1987), p. 11; As cited in: Lyn Robinson and David Bawden (2011).

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„Arithmetic is the science of the Evaluation of Functions, Algebra is the science of the Transformation of Functions.“

—  George Holmes Howison American philosopher 1834 - 1916

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