Stephen Jay Gould citáty

0   0

Stephen Jay Gould

Datum narození: 10. září 1941
Datum úmrtí: 20. květen 2002

Stephen Jay Gould byl americký zoolog židovského původu, paleontolog, evoluční biolog a historik vědy, jeden z nejpopulárnějších a nejčtenějších popularizátorů těchto oborů svojí generace.

Byl jedním ze spolutvůrců a nadšených propagátorů tzv. teorie přerušované rovnováhy, která značně modifikuje náhled evolučních biologů na evoluci a řeší některé zásadní rozpory mezi neodarwinismem a fosilními podklady. Jeho velkými konkurenty a názorovými rivaly byli Richard Dawkins či J. Philippe Rushton.

Ve své knize Jak neměřit člověka , ostře napadá některé základní práce a měření v oblasti lidské inteligence. Např. o měření obsahu lebek, které prováděl Samuel George Morton, Gould napsal: „Morton měří pomocí semínek a bere do ruky nebezpečně velkou černošskou lebku. Zlehka ji naplní a ledabyle zatřese. V dalším případě se mu ovšem dostane do ruky znepokojivě malá lebka bělocha: pořádně zatřepe a palcem ještě přitlačí na foramen magnum. Takové věci se stávají i bez vědomé motivace.“John Michael provedl přeměření reprezentativního vzorku Mortonova souboru lebek a uvádí, že i přes drobná pochybení jsou výsledky Mortonových měření v zásadě přesné, naproti tomu samotný Gould se při své práci dopustil řady chyb. Další přeměření, které provedl Jason E. Lewis a jeho tým, a bylo publikováno v roce 2011, prokázalo, že se Gould nařkl Mortona z rasového zkreslení údajů opravdu neoprávněně a sám při svém měření chyboval a manipuloval.Podle ekonoma Paula Krugmana nebyl Gould popularizátorem v pravém slova smyslu, protože místo snahy přiblížit práci vědecké komunity veřejnosti prosazoval své vlastní, odlišné myšlenky.

Podle biologa Bernarda Davise se v populární knize Jak neměřit člověka Gould snaží „zdiskreditovat vědecké zkoumání tam, kde je v konfliktu s politickým dogmatem“.

Citáty Stephen Jay Gould

„I am, somehow, less interested in the weight and convolutions of Einstein’s brain than in the near certainty that people of equal talent have lived and died in cotton fields and sweatshops.“

—  Stephen Jay Gould, kniha The Panda's Thumb

"Wide hats and narrow minds" https://books.google.com/books?id=-lWtVSZoqWkC&pg=PA776 New Scientist 8 March 1979, p. 777. Reprinted in The Panda's Thumb, p. 151 https://books.google.com/books?id=z0XY7Rg_lOwC&pg=PA151.
Zdroj: The Panda's Thumb: More Reflections in Natural History

„When people learn no tools of judgment and merely follow their hopes, the seeds of political manipulation are sown.“

—  Stephen Jay Gould, kniha An Urchin in the Storm

"The Quack Detector", p. 245
An Urchin in the Storm (1987)
Kontext: [A]s we discern a fine line between crank and genius, so also (and unfortunately) we must acknowledge an equally graded trajectory from crank to demagogue. When people learn no tools of judgment and merely follow their hopes, the seeds of political manipulation are sown.

Help us translate English quotes

Discover interesting quotes and translate them.

Start translating

„So why fret and care that the actual version of the destined deed was done by an upper class English gentleman who had circumnavigated the globe as a vigorous youth, lost his dearest daughter and his waning faith at the same time, wrote the greatest treatise ever composed on the taxonomy of barnacles, and eventually grew a white beard, lived as a country squire just south of London, and never again traveled far enough even to cross the English Channel? We care for the same reason that we love okapis, delight in the fossil evidence of trilobites, and mourn the passage of the dodo. We care because the broad events that had to happen, happened to happen in a certain particular way.“

—  Stephen Jay Gould, kniha The Structure of Evolutionary Theory

And something unspeakably holy—I don't know how else to say this—underlies our discovery and confirmation of the actual details that made our world and also, in realms of contingency, assured the minutiae of its construction in the manner we know, and not in any one of a trillion other ways, nearly all of which would not have included the evolution of a scribe to record the beauty, the cruelty, the fascination, and the mystery.
Zdroj: The Structure of Evolutionary Theory (2002), p. 1342

„I am not insensible to natural beauty, but my emotional joys center on the improbable yet sometimes wondrous works of that tiny and accidental evolutionary twig called Homo sapiens.“

—  Stephen Jay Gould

And I find, among these works, nothing more noble than the history of our struggle to understand nature—a majestic entity of such vast spatial and temporal scope that she cannot care much for a little mammalian afterthought with a curious evolutionary invention, even if that invention has, for the first time in some four billion years of life on earth, produced recursion as a creature reflects back upon its own production and evolution. Thus, I love nature primarily for the puzzles and intellectual delights that she offers to the first organ capable of such curious contemplation.
Prologue, p. 13
Bully for Brontosaurus (1991)

„The silliest and most tendentious of baseball writing tries to wrest profundity from the spectacle of grown men hitting a ball with a stick by suggesting linkages between the sport and deep issues of morality, parenthood, history, lost innocence, gentleness, and so on, seemingly ad infinitum.“

—  Stephen Jay Gould

The effort reeks of silliness because baseball is profound all by itself and needs no excuses; people who don't know this are not fans and are therefore unreachable anyway.
"The Creation Myths of Cooperstown", p. 46
Bully for Brontosaurus (1991)

„If the resident zoologist of Galaxy X had visited the earth 5 million years ago while making his inventory of inhabited planets in the universe, he would surely have corrected his earlier report that apes showed more promise than Old World monkeys and noted that monkeys had overcome an original disadvantage to gain domination among primates.“

—  Stephen Jay Gould, kniha Eight Little Piggies

He will confirm this statement after his visit next year—but also add a footnote that one species from the ape bush has enjoyed an unusual and unexpected flowering, thus demanding closer monitoring.
"The Declining Empire of Apes", p. 288
Eight Little Piggies (1993)

„Our discombobulated lives need to sink some anchors in numerical stability.“

—  Stephen Jay Gould

I still have not recovered from the rise of a pound of hamburger at the supermarket to more than a buck.
"A Time to Laugh", p. 82; originally published as "A Happy Mystery to Ponder: Why So Many Homers?" in The Wall Street Journal (2001-10-10)
Triumph and Tragedy in Mudville (2003)

„This new consensus seemed so compelling that Ernst Mayr, the dean of modern Darwinians, opened the ashcan of history for a deposit of Geoffrey's ideas about anatomical unity.“

—  Stephen Jay Gould, kniha Leonardo's Mountain of Clams and the Diet of Worms

"Brotherhood by Inversion", p. 329
Leonardo's Mountain of Clams and the Diet of Worms (1998)

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

Dnešní výročí
Dalajláma foto
Dalajláma77
14. dalajláma, tibetský duchovní vůdce 1935
Jan Hus foto
Jan Hus70
český římskokatolický kněz, reformátor a kazatel 1369 - 1415
Guy De Maupassant foto
Guy De Maupassant29
francouzský spisovatel 1850 - 1893
William Faulkner foto
William Faulkner24
americký spisovatel 1897 - 1962
Dalších 60 dnešních výročí
x