Georg Cantor citáty

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Georg Cantor

Datum narození: 19. únor 1845
Datum úmrtí: 6. leden 1918

Reklama

Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor byl významný německý matematik a logik. Kromě matematiky se především v pozdějším věku intenzivně věnoval teologii, zejména ve vztahu k vlastní práci o nekonečnu. Je znám především tím, že teorii množin rozšířil o nekonečná čísla, označovaná jako ordinální čísla a kardinální čísla.

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Citáty Georg Cantor

„Podstata matematiky spočívá v její svobodě.“

—  Georg Cantor
(en) Das Wesen der Mathematik liegt in ihrer Freiheit. Source: [Menzier-Trott, Eckart, 2001, Gentzens Problem: Mathematische Logik im nationalsozialistischen Deutschland, Springer DE, 288, němčina]

„I have never proceeded from any Genus supremum of the actual infinite. Quite the contrary, I have rigorously proved that there is absolutely no Genus supremum of the actual infinite. What surpasses all that is finite and transfinite is no Genus; it is the single, completely individual unity in which everything is included, which includes the Absolute, incomprehensible to the human understanding. This is the Actus Purissimus, which by many is called God.“

—  Georg Cantor
Context: I have never proceeded from any Genus supremum of the actual infinite. Quite the contrary, I have rigorously proved that there is absolutely no Genus supremum of the actual infinite. What surpasses all that is finite and transfinite is no Genus; it is the single, completely individual unity in which everything is included, which includes the Absolute, incomprehensible to the human understanding. This is the Actus Purissimus, which by many is called God. I am so in favor of the actual infinite that instead of admitting that Nature abhors it, as is commonly said, I hold that Nature makes frequent use of it everywhere, in order to show more effectively the perfections of its Author. Thus I believe that there is no part of matter which is not — I do not say divisible — but actually divisible; and consequently the least particle ought to be considered as a world full of an infinity of different creatures. As quoted in Out of the Mouths of Mathematicians : A Quotation Book for Philomaths (1993) by Rosemary Schmalz.

Reklama

„The transfinite numbers are in a certain sense themselves new irrationalities“

—  Georg Cantor
Context: The transfinite numbers are in a certain sense themselves new irrationalities and in fact in my opinion the best method of defining the finite irrational numbers is wholly dissimilar to, and I might even say in principle the same as, my method described above of introducing transfinite numbers. One can say unconditionally: the transfinite numbers stand or fall with the finite irrational numbers; they are like each other in their innermost being; for the former like the latter are definite delimited forms or modifications of the actual infinite. As quoted in Understanding the Infinite (1994) by Shaughan Lavine

„I call this the improper infinite“

—  Georg Cantor
From Kant to Hilbert (1996), Context: As for the mathematical infinite, to the extent that it has found a justified application in science and contributed to its usefulness, it seems to me that it has hitherto appeared principally in the role of a variable quantity, which either grows beyond all bounds or diminishes to any desired minuteness, but always remains finite. I call this the improper infinite [das Uneigentlich-unendliche].

„The totality of all alephs cannot be conceived as a determinate, well-defined, and also a finished set.“

—  Georg Cantor
Context: The totality of all alephs cannot be conceived as a determinate, well-defined, and also a finished set. This is the punctum saliens, and I venture to say that this completely certain theorem, provable rigorously from the definition of the totality of all alephs, is the most important and noblest theorem of set theory. One must only understand the expression "finished" correctly. I say of a set that it can be thought of as finished (and call such a set, if it contains infinitely many elements, "transfinite" or "suprafinite") if it is possible without contradiction (as can be done with finite sets) to think of all its elements as existing together, and to think of the set itself as a compounded thing for itself; or (in other words) if it is possible to imagine the set as actually existing with the totality of its elements. Letter to David Hilbert (2 October 1897)

„This view [of the infinite], which I consider to be the sole correct one, is held by only a few.“

—  Georg Cantor
Context: This view [of the infinite], which I consider to be the sole correct one, is held by only a few. While possibly I am the very first in history to take this position so explicitly, with all of its logical consequences, I know for sure that I shall not be the last! As quoted in Journey Through Genius (1990) by William Dunham ~

„Mathematics is in its development entirely free and is only bound in the self-evident respect that its concepts must both be consistent with each other, and also stand in exact relationships, ordered by definitions, to those concepts which have previously been introduced and are already at hand and established.“

—  Georg Cantor
From Kant to Hilbert (1996), Context: Mathematics is in its development entirely free and is only bound in the self-evident respect that its concepts must both be consistent with each other, and also stand in exact relationships, ordered by definitions, to those concepts which have previously been introduced and are already at hand and established. In particular, in the introduction of new numbers, it is only obligated to give definitions of them which will bestow such a determinacy and, in certain circumstances, such a relationship to the other numbers that they can in any given instance be precisely distinguished. As soon as a number satisfies all these conditions, it can and must be regarded in mathematics as existent and real.

„My theory stands as firm as a rock; every arrow directed against it will return quickly to its archer.“

—  Georg Cantor
Context: My theory stands as firm as a rock; every arrow directed against it will return quickly to its archer. How do I know this? Because I have studied it from all sides for many years; because I have examined all objections which have ever been made against the infinite numbers; and above all because I have followed its roots, so to speak, to the first infallible cause of all created things. As quoted in Journey Through Genius (1990) by William Dunham

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„The essence of mathematics lies entirely in its freedom.“

—  Georg Cantor
From Kant to Hilbert (1996), Variant translation: The essence of mathematics is in its freedom.

„Every transfinite consistent multiplicity, that is, every transfinite set, must have a definite aleph as its cardinal number.“

—  Georg Cantor
Letter to Richard Dedekind (1899), as translated in From Frege to Gödel : A Source Book in Mathematical Logic, 1879-1931 (1967) by Jean Van Heijenoort, p. 117

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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