Marvin Minsky citáty

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Marvin Minsky

Datum narození: 9. srpen 1927
Datum úmrtí: 24. leden 2016
Další jména: Mārvins Minskis, ماروین مینسکی, Marvin Lee Minsky

Marvin Lee Minsky byl americký vědec zabývající se umělou inteligencí. Byl spoluzakladatelem laboratoře umělé inteligence na MIT a autorem několika filosofických textů. Roku 1969 obdržel Turingovu cenu, nejprestižnější ocenění v oblasti informatiky.

„Hudba je jiný způsob myšlení. Potřebujeme občas přepnout, myslet jinak, nebo se zasekneme.“

—  Marvin Minsky

Zdroj: [Platzová, Magdaléna, Hlavně se nezaseknout, Respekt, 2010, 24, 73]

„In today's computer science curricula … almost all their time is devoted to formal classification of syntactic language types, defeatist unsolvability theories, folklore about systems programming, and generally trivial fragments of "optimization of logic design"“

—  Marvin Minsky

the latter often in situations where the art of heuristic programming has far outreached the special-case "theories" so grimly taught and tested — and invocations about programming style almost sure to be outmoded before the student graduates.
Turing Award Lecture "Form and Content in Computer Science" (1969) http://web.media.mit.edu/~minsky/papers/TuringLecture/TuringLecture.html, in Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery 17 (2) (April 1970)

„Questions about arts, traits, and styles of life are actually quite technical. They ask us to explain what happens among the agents of our minds.“

—  Marvin Minsky, kniha Society of Mind

Zdroj: The Society of Mind (1987), Ch.2
Kontext: Questions about arts, traits, and styles of life are actually quite technical. They ask us to explain what happens among the agents of our minds. But this is a subject about which we have never learned very much... Such questions will be answered in time. But it will just prolong the wait if we keep using pseudo-explanation words like "holistic" and "gestalt." …It's harmful, when naming leads the mind to think that names alone bring meaning close.

„It's harmful, when naming leads the mind to think that names alone bring meaning close.“

—  Marvin Minsky, kniha Society of Mind

Zdroj: The Society of Mind (1987), Ch.2
Kontext: Questions about arts, traits, and styles of life are actually quite technical. They ask us to explain what happens among the agents of our minds. But this is a subject about which we have never learned very much... Such questions will be answered in time. But it will just prolong the wait if we keep using pseudo-explanation words like "holistic" and "gestalt." …It's harmful, when naming leads the mind to think that names alone bring meaning close.

„For generations, scientists and philosophers have tried to explain ordinary reasoning in terms of logical principles — with virtually no success.“

—  Marvin Minsky, kniha Society of Mind

Zdroj: The Society of Mind (1987), p. 187
Kontext: For generations, scientists and philosophers have tried to explain ordinary reasoning in terms of logical principles — with virtually no success. I suspect this enterprise failed because it was looking in the wrong direction: common sense works so well not because it is an approximation of logic; logic is only a small part of our great accumulation of different, useful ways to chain things together.

„The "laws of thought" depend not only on the property of brain cells, but also on how they are connected.“

—  Marvin Minsky, kniha Society of Mind

Zdroj: The Society of Mind (1987), Ch.2
Kontext: The "laws of thought" depend not only on the property of brain cells, but also on how they are connected. And these connections are established not by the basic, "general" laws of physics... To be sure, "general" laws apply to everything. But, for that very reason, they can rarely explain anything in particular.... Each higher level of description must add to our knowledge about lower levels.

„Every smart person wants to be corrected, not admired.“

—  Marvin Minsky, kniha Society of Mind

In "The Society of Mind" MIT course, part 6, "Layers of Mental Activities" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qJZ_1a-t_sA (25:40 -- 26:15). Fall 2011.
Kontext: If you like somebody's work -- just go and see them. However, don't ask for their autograph. A lot of people came and asked me for my autograph -- and it's creepy. What I did is read everything they published first... and correct them. That's what they really want. Every smart person wants to be corrected, not admired.

„All intelligent persons also possess some larger-scale frame-systems whose members seemed at first impossibly different — like water with electricity, or poetry with music. Yet many such analogies — along with the knowledge of how to apply them — are among our most powerful tools of thought.“

—  Marvin Minsky

Jokes and their Relation to the Cognitive Unconscious (1980)
Kontext: All intelligent persons also possess some larger-scale frame-systems whose members seemed at first impossibly different — like water with electricity, or poetry with music. Yet many such analogies — along with the knowledge of how to apply them — are among our most powerful tools of thought. They explain our ability sometimes to see one thing — or idea — as though it were another, and thus to apply knowledge and experience gathered in one domain to solve problems in another. It is thus that we transfer knowledge via the paradigms of Science. We learn to see gases and fluids as particles, particles as waves, and waves as envelopes of growing spheres.

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„Looking back in vision is like recapitulation in music; both give us time, at certain points, to reconfirm or change our conceptions of the whole.“

—  Marvin Minsky

Music, Mind, and Meaning (1981)
Kontext: How do both music and vision build things in our minds? Eye motions show us real objects; phrases show us musical objects. We "learn" a room with bodily motions; large musical sections show us musical "places." Walks and climbs move us from room to room; so do transitions between musical sections. Looking back in vision is like recapitulation in music; both give us time, at certain points, to reconfirm or change our conceptions of the whole.

„A memory should induce a state through which we see current reality as an instance of the remembered event — or equivalently, see the past as an instance of the present.“

—  Marvin Minsky

K-Linesː A Theory of Memory (1980)
Kontext: A memory should induce a state through which we see current reality as an instance of the remembered event — or equivalently, see the past as an instance of the present.... the system can perform a computation analogous to one from the memorable past, but sensitive to present goals and circumstances.

„We learn to see gases and fluids as particles, particles as waves, and waves as envelopes of growing spheres.“

—  Marvin Minsky

Jokes and their Relation to the Cognitive Unconscious (1980)
Kontext: All intelligent persons also possess some larger-scale frame-systems whose members seemed at first impossibly different — like water with electricity, or poetry with music. Yet many such analogies — along with the knowledge of how to apply them — are among our most powerful tools of thought. They explain our ability sometimes to see one thing — or idea — as though it were another, and thus to apply knowledge and experience gathered in one domain to solve problems in another. It is thus that we transfer knowledge via the paradigms of Science. We learn to see gases and fluids as particles, particles as waves, and waves as envelopes of growing spheres.

„I am inclined to doubt that anything very resembling formal logic could be a good model for human reasoning.“

—  Marvin Minsky

Jokes and their Relation to the Cognitive Unconscious (1980)
Kontext: I am inclined to doubt that anything very resembling formal logic could be a good model for human reasoning. In particular, I doubt that any logic that prohibits self-reference can be adequate for psychology: no mind can have enough power — without the power to think about Thinking itself. Without Self-Reference it would seem immeasurably harder to achieve Self-Consciousness — which, so far as I can see, requires at least some capacity to reflect on what it does. If Russell shattered our hopes for making a completely reliable version of commonsense reasoning, still we can try to find the islands of "local consistency," in which naive reasoning remains correct.

„If explaining minds seems harder than explaining songs, we should remember that sometimes enlarging problems makes them simpler!“

—  Marvin Minsky

Music, Mind, and Meaning (1981)
Kontext: If explaining minds seems harder than explaining songs, we should remember that sometimes enlarging problems makes them simpler! The theory of the roots of equations seemed hard for centuries within its little world of real numbers, but it suddenly seemed simple once Gauss exposed the larger world of so-called complex numbers. Similarly, music should make more sense once seen through listeners' minds.

„Clearly, the child is learning about space! …how on earth does one learn about time? Can one time fit inside another? Can two of them go side by side? In music, we find out!“

—  Marvin Minsky

Music, Mind, and Meaning (1981)
Kontext: Of what use is musical knowledge? Here is one idea. Each child spends endless days in curious ways; we call this play. A child stacks and packs all kinds of blocks and boxes, lines them up, and knocks them down. … Clearly, the child is learning about space!... how on earth does one learn about time? Can one time fit inside another? Can two of them go side by side? In music, we find out!

„Concrete concepts are not necessarily the simplest ones.“

—  Marvin Minsky

K-Linesː A Theory of Memory (1980)
Kontext: Concrete concepts are not necessarily the simplest ones. A novice best remembers "being at" a concert. The amateur remembers more of what it "sounded like." Only the professional remembers the music itself, timbres, tones and textures.

„A thing or idea seems meaningful only when we have several different ways to represent it — different perspectives and different associations.“

—  Marvin Minsky

Music, Mind, and Meaning (1981)
Kontext: What is the difference between merely knowing (or remembering, or memorizing) and understanding?... A thing or idea seems meaningful only when we have several different ways to represent it — different perspectives and different associations.... Then we can turn it around in our minds, so to speak: however it seems at the moment, we can see it another way and we never come to a full stop. In other words, we can 'think' about it. If there were only one way to represent this thing or idea, we would not call this representation thinking.

„When you "get an idea," or "solve a problem," or have a "memorable experience," you create what we shall call a K-line.“

—  Marvin Minsky

K-Linesː A Theory of Memory (1980)
Kontext: When you "get an idea," or "solve a problem," or have a "memorable experience," you create what we shall call a K-line. This K-line gets connected to those "mental agencies" that were actively involved in the memorable event. When that K-line is later "activated," it reactivates some of those mental agencies, creating a "partial mental state" resembling the original.

„Just knowing that such states exist, that is, having symbols for them, is half the battle.“

—  Marvin Minsky

Music, Mind, and Meaning (1981)
Kontext: Innate sentic detectors could help by teaching children about their own affective states. For if distinct signals arouse specific states, the child can associate those signals with those states. Just knowing that such states exist, that is, having symbols for them, is half the battle.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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