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Noam Chomsky

Datum narození: 7. prosinec 1928
Další jména: Ноам Хомский, Ноам Чомский, Avram Noam Chomsky

Avram Noam Chomsky je americký filozof, kognitivní vědec, lingvista, logik, společenský kritik a aktivista židovského původu, tvůrce tzv. Chomského hierarchické klasifikace formálních jazyků, emeritní profesor lingvistiky na Massachusettském technologickém institutu , a také levicově orientovaný politický aktivista - anarchista, známý svým kritickým vztahem ke globalizaci a jejím dopadům, k válečným konfliktům, k zahraniční politice USA, Izraele a dalších vlád. Podle Top global intellectuals of 2005 a časopisů Prospect magazine a Foreign policy byl zvolen nejvlivnějším globálním intelektuálem.Chomsky je autorem teorie generativní gramatiky, která je některými považována za největší přínos na poli teoretické lingvistiky 20. století. Ovlivnil též filozofii jazyka a mysli . Rovněž pomohl podnítit kognitivní revoluci v psychologii díky své revizi Skinnerova verbálního chování, ve které zpochybnil behavioristický přístup ke studiu chování a jazyku, převažující v 50. letech minulého století. Jeho naturalistický přístup ke studiu jazyka ovlivnil filozofii jazyka a mysli. Zasloužil se také o založení Chomského hierarchie v roce 1956 – klasifikaci formálních jazyků dle jejich generativní schopnosti.

Dle Chomského je vývoj řeči vymezen geneticky – došel k závěru, že existuje jakási univerzální gramatika, která je vrozená a nikoli naučená během života – člověk se rodí se základní gramatickou šablonou, do které snadno zapadne jakýkoli světový jazyk. Chomského teorie jsou ale napadány, protože postrádají vědecké důkazy.Dle Indexu humanitních citací z roku 1992 byl Chomsky jako pramen citován častěji než jakýkoliv jiný žijící badatel mezi lety 1980-1992, a byl osmý nejcitovanější vědec vůbec.

Od jeho kritiky války ve Vietnamu v 60. letech minulého století se stal ještě známějším – hlavně mezinárodně – díky své mediální kritice a politice. Obecně je považován za klíčovou intelektuální osobnost levého křídla politiky Spojených států. Je široce znám pro svou politickou aktivitu a kritiku zahraniční politiky USA a jiných vlád a také pro popsání modelu propagandy. Wikipedia

„Vládě se asi nelíbí věcí, které říkám, a fakt, že jsem chtěl přednášet na palestinské univerzitě v Ramalláhu a ne na univerzitě izraelské.“

—  Noam Chomsky

o zákazu vstupu do Izraele
Zdroj: [Jediná demokracie na Blízkém východě?, literarky.cz, 2010-05-19, 2011-03-06, http://www.literarky.cz/svet/blizky-vychod/2373-jedina-demokracie-na-blizkem-vychod]

„There is a noticeable general difference between the sciences and mathematics on the one hand, and the humanities and social sciences on the other.“

—  Noam Chomsky

Quotes 1990s, 1990-1994
Kontext: There is a noticeable general difference between the sciences and mathematics on the one hand, and the humanities and social sciences on the other. It's a first approximation, but one that is real. In the former, the factors of integrity tend to dominate more over the factors of ideology. It's not that scientists are more honest people. It's just that nature is a harsh taskmaster. You can lie or distort the story of the French Revolution as long as you like, and nothing will happen. Propose a false theory in chemistry, and it'll be refuted tomorrow.

„You can't have non-violent resistance against the Nazis in a concentration camp“

—  Noam Chomsky

Chronicles of Dissent, December 13, 1989 http://www.zmag.org/chomsky/interviews/db-8912.html
Quotes 1960s-1980s, 1980s
Kontext: Non-violent resistance activities cannot succeed against an enemy that is able freely to use violence. That's pretty obvious. You can't have non-violent resistance against the Nazis in a concentration camp, to take an extreme case...

„We're dealing with real human beings who are suffering and dying and being tortured and starving because of policies that we are involved in“

—  Noam Chomsky

Quotes 1990s, 1990-1994
Kontext: We're not analyzing the media on Mars or in the eighteenth century or something like that. We're dealing with real human beings who are suffering and dying and being tortured and starving because of policies that we are involved in, we as citizens of democratic societies are directly involved in and are responsible for, and what the media are doing is ensuring that we do not act on our responsibilities, and that the interests of power are served, not the needs of the suffering people, and not even the needs of the American people who would be horrified if they realized the blood that's dripping from their hands because of the way they are allowing themselves to be deluded and manipulated by the system.

„If you take an economics or a political science course, you're taught that humans are supposed to be rational wealth accumulators“

—  Noam Chomsky

Interview by Yifat Susskind, August 2001 http://www.madre.org/articles/chomsky-0801.html.
Quotes 2000s, 2001
Kontext: Take the Kyoto Protocol. Destruction of the environment is not only rational; it's exactly what you're taught to do in college. If you take an economics or a political science course, you're taught that humans are supposed to be rational wealth accumulators, each acting as an individual to maximize his own wealth in the market. The market is regarded as democratic because everybody has a vote. Of course, some have more votes than others because your votes depend on the number of dollars you have, but everybody participates and therefore it's called democratic. Well, suppose that we believe what we are taught. It follows that if there are dollars to be made, you destroy the environment. The reason is elementary. The people who are going to be harmed by this are your grandchildren, and they don't have any votes in the market. Their interests are worth zero. Anybody that pays attention to their grandchildren's interests is being irrational, because what you're supposed to do is maximize your own interests, measured by wealth, right now. Nothing else matters. So destroying the environment and militarizing outer space are rational policies, but within a framework of institutional lunacy. If you accept the institutional lunacy, then the policies are rational.

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„There are two parties, so-called, but they're really factions of the same party, the Business Party.“

—  Noam Chomsky

Quotes 1990s, 1990-1994, Interview by Adam Jones, 1990
Kontext: In the United States, the political system is a very marginal affair. There are two parties, so-called, but they're really factions of the same party, the Business Party. Both represent some range of business interests. In fact, they can change their positions 180 degrees, and nobody even notices. In the 1984 election, for example, there was actually an issue, which often there isn't. The issue was Keynesian growth versus fiscal conservatism. The Republicans were the party of Keynesian growth: big spending, deficits, and so on. The Democrats were the party of fiscal conservatism: watch the money supply, worry about the deficits, et cetera. Now, I didn't see a single comment pointing out that the two parties had completely reversed their traditional positions. Traditionally, the Democrats are the party of Keynesian growth, and the Republicans the party of fiscal conservatism. So doesn't it strike you that something must have happened? Well, actually, it makes sense. Both parties are essentially the same party. The only question is how coalitions of investors have shifted around on tactical issues now and then. As they do, the parties shift to opposite positions, within a narrow spectrum.

„This was slaughter, not war.“

—  Noam Chomsky

Z Magazine, August 31, 1991 http://www.zmag.org/chomsky/articles/z9110-aftermath.html.
Quotes 1990s, 1990-1994
Kontext: The crisis began with the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait a year ago. There was some fighting, leaving hundreds killed according to Human Rights groups. That hardly qualifies as war. Rather, in terms of crimes against peace and against humanity, it falls roughly into the category of the Turkish invasion of northern Cyprus, Israel's invasion of Lebanon in 1978, and the U. S. invasion of Panama. In these terms it falls well short of Israel's 1982 invasion of Lebanon, and cannot remotely be compared with the near-genocidal Indonesian invasion and annexation of East Timor, to mention only two cases of aggression that are still in progress, with continuing atrocities and with the crucial support of those who most passionately professed their outrage over Iraq's aggression. During the subsequent months, Iraq was responsible for terrible crimes in Kuwait, with several thousand killed and many tortured. But that is not war; rather, state terrorism, of the kind familiar among U. S. clients. The second phase of the conflict began with the U. S.-U. K. attack of January 15 (with marginal participation of others). This was slaughter http://www.hrw.org/reports/1991/gulfwar/index.htm, not war.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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