Noam Chomsky citáty

Noam Chomsky foto
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Noam Chomsky

Datum narození: 7. prosinec 1928
Další jména: Ноам Хомский, Ноам Чомский, Avram Noam Chomsky

Avram Noam Chomsky je americký filozof, kognitivní vědec, lingvista, logik, společenský kritik a aktivista židovského původu, tvůrce tzv. Chomského hierarchické klasifikace formálních jazyků, emeritní profesor lingvistiky na Massachusettském technologickém institutu , a také levicově orientovaný politický aktivista - anarchista, známý svým kritickým vztahem ke globalizaci a jejím dopadům, k válečným konfliktům, k zahraniční politice USA, Izraele a dalších vlád. Podle Top global intellectuals of 2005 a časopisů Prospect magazine a Foreign policy byl zvolen nejvlivnějším globálním intelektuálem.Chomsky je autorem teorie generativní gramatiky, která je některými považována za největší přínos na poli teoretické lingvistiky 20. století. Ovlivnil též filozofii jazyka a mysli . Rovněž pomohl podnítit kognitivní revoluci v psychologii díky své revizi Skinnerova verbálního chování, ve které zpochybnil behavioristický přístup ke studiu chování a jazyku, převažující v 50. letech minulého století. Jeho naturalistický přístup ke studiu jazyka ovlivnil filozofii jazyka a mysli. Zasloužil se také o založení Chomského hierarchie v roce 1956 – klasifikaci formálních jazyků dle jejich generativní schopnosti.

Dle Chomského je vývoj řeči vymezen geneticky – došel k závěru, že existuje jakási univerzální gramatika, která je vrozená a nikoli naučená během života – člověk se rodí se základní gramatickou šablonou, do které snadno zapadne jakýkoli světový jazyk. Chomského teorie jsou ale napadány, protože postrádají vědecké důkazy.Dle Indexu humanitních citací z roku 1992 byl Chomsky jako pramen citován častěji než jakýkoliv jiný žijící badatel mezi lety 1980-1992, a byl osmý nejcitovanější vědec vůbec.

Od jeho kritiky války ve Vietnamu v 60. letech minulého století se stal ještě známějším – hlavně mezinárodně – díky své mediální kritice a politice. Obecně je považován za klíčovou intelektuální osobnost levého křídla politiky Spojených států. Je široce znám pro svou politickou aktivitu a kritiku zahraniční politiky USA a jiných vlád a také pro popsání modelu propagandy.

Citáty Noam Chomsky

„Vládě se asi nelíbí věcí, které říkám, a fakt, že jsem chtěl přednášet na palestinské univerzitě v Ramalláhu a ne na univerzitě izraelské.“

—  Noam Chomsky

o zákazu vstupu do Izraele
Zdroj: [Jediná demokracie na Blízkém východě?, literarky.cz, 2010-05-19, 2011-03-06, http://www.literarky.cz/svet/blizky-vychod/2373-jedina-demokracie-na-blizkem-vychod]

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„This was slaughter, not war.“

—  Noam Chomsky

Z Magazine, August 31, 1991 http://www.zmag.org/chomsky/articles/z9110-aftermath.html.
Quotes 1990s, 1990-1994
Kontext: The crisis began with the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait a year ago. There was some fighting, leaving hundreds killed according to Human Rights groups. That hardly qualifies as war. Rather, in terms of crimes against peace and against humanity, it falls roughly into the category of the Turkish invasion of northern Cyprus, Israel's invasion of Lebanon in 1978, and the U. S. invasion of Panama. In these terms it falls well short of Israel's 1982 invasion of Lebanon, and cannot remotely be compared with the near-genocidal Indonesian invasion and annexation of East Timor, to mention only two cases of aggression that are still in progress, with continuing atrocities and with the crucial support of those who most passionately professed their outrage over Iraq's aggression. During the subsequent months, Iraq was responsible for terrible crimes in Kuwait, with several thousand killed and many tortured. But that is not war; rather, state terrorism, of the kind familiar among U. S. clients. The second phase of the conflict began with the U. S.-U. K. attack of January 15 (with marginal participation of others). This was slaughter http://www.hrw.org/reports/1991/gulfwar/index.htm, not war.

„It's only terrorism if they do it to us. When we do much worse to them, it's not terrorism.“

—  Noam Chomsky, Media Control: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda

Zdroj: Media Control: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda

„If we don't believe in free expression for people we despise, we don't believe in it at all.“

—  Noam Chomsky

Noam Chomsky in interview by John Pilger on BBC's The Late Show, November 25, 1992 http://jmm.aaa.net.au/articles/14177.htm.
Quotes 1990s, 1990-1994

„The consistent anarchist, then, should be“

—  Noam Chomsky

" Notes on Anarchism http://www.chomsky.info/articles/1970----.htm," in: Daniel Guérin Anarchism: From Theory to Practice, 1970.
Quotes 1960s-1980s, 1970s
Kontext: The consistent anarchist, then, should be a socialist, but a socialist of a particular sort. He will not only oppose alienated and specialized labor and look forward to the appropriation of capital by the whole body of workers, but he will also insist that this appropriation be direct, not exercised by some elite force acting in the name of the proletariat.

„The political policies that are called conservative these days would appall any genuine conservative“

—  Noam Chomsky

Quotes 1990s, 1990-1994, Interview by Adam Jones, 1990
Kontext: The political policies that are called conservative these days would appall any genuine conservative, if there were one around to be appalled. For example, the central policy of the Reagan Administration - which was supposed to be conservative - was to build up a powerful state. The state grew in power more under Reagan than in any peacetime period, even if you just measure it by state expenditures. The state intervention in the economy vastly increased. That's what the Pentagon system is, in fact; it's the creation of a state-guaranteed market and subsidy system for high-technology production. There was a commitment under the Reagan Administration to protect this more powerful state from the public, which is regarded as the domestic enemy. Take the resort to clandestine operations in foreign policy: that means the creation of a powerful central state immune from public inspection. Or take the increased efforts at censorship and other forms of control. All of these are called "conservatism," but they're the very opposite of conservatism. Whatever the term means, it involves a concern for Enlightenment values of individual rights and freedoms against powerful external authorities such as the state, [or] a dominant Church, and so on. That kind of conservatism no one even remembers anymore.

„Because they don't teach the truth about the world, schools have to rely on beating students over the head with propaganda about democracy.“

—  Noam Chomsky

Chomsky on Miseducation, 1999 http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/~rgibson/rouge_forum/newspaper/fall2001/Chomsky.htm.
Quotes 1990s, 1995-1999
Kontext: Because they don't teach the truth about the world, schools have to rely on beating students over the head with propaganda about democracy. If schools were, in reality, democratic, there would be no need to bombard students with platitudes about democracy. They would simply act and behave democratically, and we know this does not happen. The more there is a need to talk about the ideals of democracy, the less democratic the system usually is.

„Either the general population will take control of its own destiny and will concern itself with community interests, guided by values of solidarity, sympathy and concern for others, or alternatively there will be no destiny for anyone to control.“

—  Noam Chomsky

Quotes 1990s, 1990-1994
Kontext: Modern industrial civilization has developed within a certain system of convenient myths. The driving force of modern industrial civilization has been individual material gain, which is accepted as legitimate, even praiseworthy, on the grounds that private vices yield public benefits, in the classic formulation. Now, it has long been understood, very well, that a society that is based on this principle will destroy itself in time. It can only persist, with whatever suffering and injustice that it entails, as long as it is possible to pretend that the destructive forces that humans create are limited, that the world is an infinite resource, and that the world is an infinite garbage can. At this stage of history either one of two things is possible. Either the general population will take control of its own destiny and will concern itself with community interests, guided by values of solidarity, sympathy and concern for others, or alternatively there will be no destiny for anyone to control. As long as some specialized class is in a position of authority, it is going to set policy in the special interests that it serves. But the conditions of survival, let alone justice, require rational social planning in the interests of the community as a whole, and by now that means the global community. The question is whether privileged elite should dominate mass communication and should use this power as they tell us they must—namely to impose necessary illusions, to manipulate and deceive the stupid majority and remove them from the public arena. The question in brief, is whether democracy and freedom are values to be preserved or threats to be avoided. In this possibly terminal phase of human existence, democracy and freedom are more than values to be treasured; they may well be essential to survival.

„The September 11 attacks were major atrocities. In terms of number of victims they do not reach the level of many others, for example, Clinton's bombing of the Sudan with no credible pretext, destroying half its pharmaceutical supplies and probably killing tens of thousands of people“

—  Noam Chomsky

Quotes 2000s, 2001
Kontext: The September 11 attacks were major atrocities. In terms of number of victims they do not reach the level of many others, for example, Clinton's bombing of the Sudan with no credible pretext, destroying half its pharmaceutical supplies and probably killing tens of thousands of people (no one knows, because the US blocked an inquiry at the UN and no one cares to pursue it). Not to speak of much worse cases, which easily come to mind. But that this was a horrendous crime is not in doubt. The primary victims, as usual, were working people: janitors, secretaries, firemen, etc. It is likely to prove to be a crushing blow to Palestinians and other poor and oppressed people. It is also likely to lead to harsh security controls, with many possible ramifications for undermining civil liberties and internal freedom.

A Quick Reaction, September 12, 2001 http://www.chomsky.info/articles/20010912.htm.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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