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Noam Chomsky

Datum narození: 7. prosinec 1928
Další jména: Ноам Хомский, Ноам Чомский, Avram Noam Chomsky

Avram Noam Chomsky je americký filozof, kognitivní vědec, lingvista, logik, společenský kritik a aktivista židovského původu, tvůrce tzv. Chomského hierarchické klasifikace formálních jazyků, emeritní profesor lingvistiky na Massachusettském technologickém institutu , a také levicově orientovaný politický aktivista - anarchista, známý svým kritickým vztahem ke globalizaci a jejím dopadům, k válečným konfliktům, k zahraniční politice USA, Izraele a dalších vlád. Podle Top global intellectuals of 2005 a časopisů Prospect magazine a Foreign policy byl zvolen nejvlivnějším globálním intelektuálem.Chomsky je autorem teorie generativní gramatiky, která je některými považována za největší přínos na poli teoretické lingvistiky 20. století. Ovlivnil též filozofii jazyka a mysli . Rovněž pomohl podnítit kognitivní revoluci v psychologii díky své revizi Skinnerova verbálního chování, ve které zpochybnil behavioristický přístup ke studiu chování a jazyku, převažující v 50. letech minulého století. Jeho naturalistický přístup ke studiu jazyka ovlivnil filozofii jazyka a mysli. Zasloužil se také o založení Chomského hierarchie v roce 1956 – klasifikaci formálních jazyků dle jejich generativní schopnosti.

Dle Chomského je vývoj řeči vymezen geneticky – došel k závěru, že existuje jakási univerzální gramatika, která je vrozená a nikoli naučená během života – člověk se rodí se základní gramatickou šablonou, do které snadno zapadne jakýkoli světový jazyk. Chomského teorie jsou ale napadány, protože postrádají vědecké důkazy.Dle Indexu humanitních citací z roku 1992 byl Chomsky jako pramen citován častěji než jakýkoliv jiný žijící badatel mezi lety 1980-1992, a byl osmý nejcitovanější vědec vůbec.

Od jeho kritiky války ve Vietnamu v 60. letech minulého století se stal ještě známějším – hlavně mezinárodně – díky své mediální kritice a politice. Obecně je považován za klíčovou intelektuální osobnost levého křídla politiky Spojených států. Je široce znám pro svou politickou aktivitu a kritiku zahraniční politiky USA a jiných vlád a také pro popsání modelu propagandy.

„Vládě se asi nelíbí věcí, které říkám, a fakt, že jsem chtěl přednášet na palestinské univerzitě v Ramalláhu a ne na univerzitě izraelské.“

—  Noam Chomsky

o zákazu vstupu do Izraele
Zdroj: [Jediná demokracie na Blízkém východě?, literarky.cz, 2010-05-19, 2011-03-06, http://www.literarky.cz/svet/blizky-vychod/2373-jedina-demokracie-na-blizkem-vychod]

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„This was slaughter, not war.“

—  Noam Chomsky

Z Magazine, August 31, 1991 http://www.zmag.org/chomsky/articles/z9110-aftermath.html.
Quotes 1990s, 1990-1994
Kontext: The crisis began with the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait a year ago. There was some fighting, leaving hundreds killed according to Human Rights groups. That hardly qualifies as war. Rather, in terms of crimes against peace and against humanity, it falls roughly into the category of the Turkish invasion of northern Cyprus, Israel's invasion of Lebanon in 1978, and the U. S. invasion of Panama. In these terms it falls well short of Israel's 1982 invasion of Lebanon, and cannot remotely be compared with the near-genocidal Indonesian invasion and annexation of East Timor, to mention only two cases of aggression that are still in progress, with continuing atrocities and with the crucial support of those who most passionately professed their outrage over Iraq's aggression. During the subsequent months, Iraq was responsible for terrible crimes in Kuwait, with several thousand killed and many tortured. But that is not war; rather, state terrorism, of the kind familiar among U. S. clients. The second phase of the conflict began with the U. S.-U. K. attack of January 15 (with marginal participation of others). This was slaughter http://www.hrw.org/reports/1991/gulfwar/index.htm, not war.

„If we don't believe in free expression for people we despise, we don't believe in it at all.“

—  Noam Chomsky

Noam Chomsky in interview by John Pilger on BBC's The Late Show, November 25, 1992 http://jmm.aaa.net.au/articles/14177.htm.
Quotes 1990s, 1990-1994

„Either the general population will take control of its own destiny and will concern itself with community interests, guided by values of solidarity, sympathy and concern for others, or alternatively there will be no destiny for anyone to control.“

—  Noam Chomsky

Quotes 1990s, 1990-1994
Kontext: Modern industrial civilization has developed within a certain system of convenient myths. The driving force of modern industrial civilization has been individual material gain, which is accepted as legitimate, even praiseworthy, on the grounds that private vices yield public benefits, in the classic formulation. Now, it has long been understood, very well, that a society that is based on this principle will destroy itself in time. It can only persist, with whatever suffering and injustice that it entails, as long as it is possible to pretend that the destructive forces that humans create are limited, that the world is an infinite resource, and that the world is an infinite garbage can. At this stage of history either one of two things is possible. Either the general population will take control of its own destiny and will concern itself with community interests, guided by values of solidarity, sympathy and concern for others, or alternatively there will be no destiny for anyone to control. As long as some specialized class is in a position of authority, it is going to set policy in the special interests that it serves. But the conditions of survival, let alone justice, require rational social planning in the interests of the community as a whole, and by now that means the global community. The question is whether privileged elite should dominate mass communication and should use this power as they tell us they must—namely to impose necessary illusions, to manipulate and deceive the stupid majority and remove them from the public arena. The question in brief, is whether democracy and freedom are values to be preserved or threats to be avoided. In this possibly terminal phase of human existence, democracy and freedom are more than values to be treasured; they may well be essential to survival.

„The September 11 attacks were major atrocities. In terms of number of victims they do not reach the level of many others, for example, Clinton's bombing of the Sudan with no credible pretext, destroying half its pharmaceutical supplies and probably killing tens of thousands of people“

—  Noam Chomsky

Quotes 2000s, 2001
Kontext: The September 11 attacks were major atrocities. In terms of number of victims they do not reach the level of many others, for example, Clinton's bombing of the Sudan with no credible pretext, destroying half its pharmaceutical supplies and probably killing tens of thousands of people (no one knows, because the US blocked an inquiry at the UN and no one cares to pursue it). Not to speak of much worse cases, which easily come to mind. But that this was a horrendous crime is not in doubt. The primary victims, as usual, were working people: janitors, secretaries, firemen, etc. It is likely to prove to be a crushing blow to Palestinians and other poor and oppressed people. It is also likely to lead to harsh security controls, with many possible ramifications for undermining civil liberties and internal freedom.

A Quick Reaction, September 12, 2001 http://www.chomsky.info/articles/20010912.htm.

„It is the fundamental duty of the citizen to resist and to restrain the violence of the state.“

—  Noam Chomsky

Noam Chomsky, in John Duffett International War Crimes Tribunal: Against the Crime of Silence: Proceedings. Simon and Schuster, 1970. p. xxiv; Republished at Foreword http://www.chomsky.info/articles/1971----.htm in chomsky.info, accessed May 23, 2014.
Quotes 1960s-1980s, 1970s
Kontext: It is the fundamental duty of the citizen to resist and to restrain the violence of the state. Those who choose to disregard this responsibility can justly be accused of complicity in war crimes, which is itself designated as ‘a crime under international law’ in the principles of the Charter of Nuremberg.

„Within our ideological system, it is impossible to perceive that anyone might criticize anything but "mistakes"“

—  Noam Chomsky

Quotes 1990s, 1990-1994
Kontext: I never criticized United States planners for mistakes in Vietnam. True, they made some mistakes, but my criticism was always aimed at what they aimed to do and largely achieved. The Russians doubtless made mistakes in Afghanistan, but my condemnation of their aggression and atrocities never mentioned those mistakes, which are irrelevant to the matter -- though not for the commissars. Within our ideological system, it is impossible to perceive that anyone might criticize anything but "mistakes" (I suspect that totalitarian Russia was more open in that regard).

„Do they inhere in persons of flesh and blood or … in abstract constructions like corporations, or capital, or states? In the past century the idea that such entities have special rights, over and above persons, has been strongly advocated. The most prominent examples are .“

—  Noam Chomsky

Rogue States (2000).
Quotes 2000s, 2000
Kontext: Let's go back to our point of departure: the contested issues of freedom and rights, hence sovereignty, insofar as it's to be valued. Do they inhere in persons of flesh and blood or … in abstract constructions like corporations, or capital, or states? In the past century the idea that such entities have special rights, over and above persons, has been strongly advocated. The most prominent examples are.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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