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Noam Chomsky

Datum narození: 7. prosinec 1928
Další jména: Ноам Хомский, Ноам Чомский, Avram Noam Chomsky

Avram Noam Chomsky je americký filozof, kognitivní vědec, lingvista, logik, společenský kritik a aktivista židovského původu, tvůrce tzv. Chomského hierarchické klasifikace formálních jazyků, emeritní profesor lingvistiky na Massachusettském technologickém institutu , a také levicově orientovaný politický aktivista - anarchista, známý svým kritickým vztahem ke globalizaci a jejím dopadům, k válečným konfliktům, k zahraniční politice USA, Izraele a dalších vlád. Podle Top global intellectuals of 2005 a časopisů Prospect magazine a Foreign policy byl zvolen nejvlivnějším globálním intelektuálem.Chomsky je autorem teorie generativní gramatiky, která je některými považována za největší přínos na poli teoretické lingvistiky 20. století. Ovlivnil též filozofii jazyka a mysli . Rovněž pomohl podnítit kognitivní revoluci v psychologii díky své revizi Skinnerova verbálního chování, ve které zpochybnil behavioristický přístup ke studiu chování a jazyku, převažující v 50. letech minulého století. Jeho naturalistický přístup ke studiu jazyka ovlivnil filozofii jazyka a mysli. Zasloužil se také o založení Chomského hierarchie v roce 1956 – klasifikaci formálních jazyků dle jejich generativní schopnosti.

Dle Chomského je vývoj řeči vymezen geneticky – došel k závěru, že existuje jakási univerzální gramatika, která je vrozená a nikoli naučená během života – člověk se rodí se základní gramatickou šablonou, do které snadno zapadne jakýkoli světový jazyk. Chomského teorie jsou ale napadány, protože postrádají vědecké důkazy.Dle Indexu humanitních citací z roku 1992 byl Chomsky jako pramen citován častěji než jakýkoliv jiný žijící badatel mezi lety 1980-1992, a byl osmý nejcitovanější vědec vůbec.

Od jeho kritiky války ve Vietnamu v 60. letech minulého století se stal ještě známějším – hlavně mezinárodně – díky své mediální kritice a politice. Obecně je považován za klíčovou intelektuální osobnost levého křídla politiky Spojených států. Je široce znám pro svou politickou aktivitu a kritiku zahraniční politiky USA a jiných vlád a také pro popsání modelu propagandy. Wikipedia

„Vládě se asi nelíbí věcí, které říkám, a fakt, že jsem chtěl přednášet na palestinské univerzitě v Ramalláhu a ne na univerzitě izraelské.“

—  Noam Chomsky

o zákazu vstupu do Izraele
Zdroj: [Jediná demokracie na Blízkém východě?, literarky.cz, 2010-05-19, 2011-03-06, http://www.literarky.cz/svet/blizky-vychod/2373-jedina-demokracie-na-blizkem-vychod]

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„This was slaughter, not war.“

—  Noam Chomsky

Z Magazine, August 31, 1991 http://www.zmag.org/chomsky/articles/z9110-aftermath.html.
Quotes 1990s, 1990-1994
Kontext: The crisis began with the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait a year ago. There was some fighting, leaving hundreds killed according to Human Rights groups. That hardly qualifies as war. Rather, in terms of crimes against peace and against humanity, it falls roughly into the category of the Turkish invasion of northern Cyprus, Israel's invasion of Lebanon in 1978, and the U. S. invasion of Panama. In these terms it falls well short of Israel's 1982 invasion of Lebanon, and cannot remotely be compared with the near-genocidal Indonesian invasion and annexation of East Timor, to mention only two cases of aggression that are still in progress, with continuing atrocities and with the crucial support of those who most passionately professed their outrage over Iraq's aggression. During the subsequent months, Iraq was responsible for terrible crimes in Kuwait, with several thousand killed and many tortured. But that is not war; rather, state terrorism, of the kind familiar among U. S. clients. The second phase of the conflict began with the U. S.-U. K. attack of January 15 (with marginal participation of others). This was slaughter http://www.hrw.org/reports/1991/gulfwar/index.htm, not war.

„If we don't believe in free expression for people we despise, we don't believe in it at all.“

—  Noam Chomsky

Noam Chomsky in interview by John Pilger on BBC's The Late Show, November 25, 1992 http://jmm.aaa.net.au/articles/14177.htm.
Quotes 1990s, 1990-1994

„We kill them by carrying out policies, supporting the regimes“

—  Noam Chomsky

Quotes 1960s-1980s, 1980s, Talk at University of California, Berkeley, 1984
Kontext: Rio de Janeiro, incidentally, is not the poor part of the country, that sort of the rich part of the country. It's not the northeast, where 35 million people or so, nobody knows what happens to them, or cares. But Rio de Janeiro, that's where people are looking, the rich parts. And this journal is a science journal, kinda like Science in the United States. It was studying malnutrition. And here's the figures it had for Rio de Janeiro: infants from 0 to 5 months, severe malnutrition, meaning medically severe, 67%; 5 months to a year, 41%; a year to 5 years, 11%. Now the reason of course for the decline, from 67 to 41 to 11, is that they will die. So that's what happens under the conditions of the economic miracle, like in Guatemala. Now, it's a little wrong to say that the people die. The fact is, they don't die. We kill them, that's what happens. We kill them by carrying out policies, supporting the regimes of the kind that I've described. And by intervening with force and violence to suppress and destroy any attempt, however minimal, even on a speck like Grenada, we've got to stop any attempt to bring some change into this. That's the history of our hemisphere.

„The US intervened in the Philippines to "uplift and christianize" the backward people, killing a couple of hundred thousand of them and destroying the place. The same thing happened in Haiti, the same thing happened with other countries. We cannot disregard the historical record and talk about an ideal world. It makes sense to work towards a better world, but it doesn't make any sense to have illusions about what the real world is.“

—  Noam Chomsky

Seminar at Bard College, New York, February 2, 2000 http://www.bard.edu/hrp/resource_pdfs/hhrs.chomsky.pdf.
Quotes 2000s, 2000
Kontext: Actually, on humanitarian intervention in general, I guess my view is not unlike the view that was attributed to Gandhi, accurately or not, when he was supposedly asked what he thought about western civilization. He is supposed to have said that he thought it would be a good idea. Similarly, humanitarian intervention would be a good idea, in principle. [... ] can we expect that with the existing power structure, distribution of power in the world, there will be humanitarian intervention? There is nothing new about the question, of course. The idea of humanitarian intervention goes back to the days of the Concert of Europe a century ago - in the 19th Century there was lots of talk about civilizing missions and interventions that would do good things. The US intervened in the Philippines to "uplift and christianize" the backward people, killing a couple of hundred thousand of them and destroying the place. The same thing happened in Haiti, the same thing happened with other countries. We cannot disregard the historical record and talk about an ideal world. It makes sense to work towards a better world, but it doesn't make any sense to have illusions about what the real world is.

„State terror is almost always much more extreme than retail terror, and this is no exception.“

—  Noam Chomsky

Interview by Tony Jones on Lateline, April 8, 2002 http://www.chomsky.info/interviews/20020408.htm.
Quotes 2000s, 2002
Kontext: [Q: do you think the Palestinian suicide bombers are freedom fighters or terrorists? ] They're terrorists - they're both, actually. They're trying to fight for freedom, but doing it in a totally unacceptable immoral way. Of course they're terrorists. And there's been Palestinian terrorism all the way through. I have always opposed it, I oppose it now. But it's very small as compared with the US-backed Israeli terrorism. Quite typically, violence reflects the means of violence. It's not unusual. State terror is almost always much more extreme than retail terror, and this is no exception.

„Capitalism is a system in which the central institutions of society are in principle under autocratic control.“

—  Noam Chomsky

" One Man's View : Noam Chomsky interviewed by an anonymous interviewer http://www.chomsky.info/interviews/197305--.htm," Business Today, May 1973.
Quotes 1960s-1980s, 1970s
Kontext: Personally I'm in favor of democracy, which means that the central institutions in the society have to be under popular control. Now, under capitalism we can't have democracy by definition. Capitalism is a system in which the central institutions of society are in principle under autocratic control. Thus, a corporation or an industry is, if we were to think of it in political terms, fascist; that is, it has tight control at the top and strict obedience has to be established at every level -- there's a little bargaining, a little give and take, but the line of authority is perfectly straightforward. Just as I'm opposed to political fascism, I'm opposed to economic fascism. I think that until major institutions of society are under the popular control of participants and communities, it's pointless to talk about democracy.

„As early as World War I, American historians offered themselves to President Woodrow Wilson to carry out a task they called "historical engineering," by which they meant designing the facts of history so that they would serve state policy.“

—  Noam Chomsky

Quotes 1960s-1980s, 1980s
Zdroj: Wendy McElroy, ‎Carl Watner (1987) The Voluntaryist, Nr. 23-41 (1987), p. 120; Republished in: " Propaganda Review, 1987 http://www.zpub.com/un/chomsky.html," at zpub.com, accessed May 23, 2014.
Kontext: Pointing to the massive amounts of propaganda spewed by government and institutions around the world, observers have called our era the age of Orwell. But the fact is that Orwell was a latecomer on the scene. As early as World War I, American historians offered themselves to President Woodrow Wilson to carry out a task they called "historical engineering," by which they meant designing the facts of history so that they would serve state policy. In this instance, the U. S. government wanted to silence opposition to the war. This represents a version of Orwell's 1984, even before Orwell was writing.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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