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Alfred Binet

Datum narození: 8. červenec 1857
Datum úmrtí: 18. říjen 1911

Alfred Binet byl francouzský psycholog a autor prvního běžně používaného testu inteligence.

Šlo o psychologa, který publikoval první moderní inteligenční test - Binet-Simonova inteligenční škála; v roce 1905. Jeho představený měl identifikovat studenty, kteří vyžadovali nadstandardní pomoc při zvládání učební látky. Spolu se svým spolupracovníkem Theodorem Simonem publikoval v letech 1908 a 1911 opravu své inteligenční škály, která se stala tou poslední těsně před jeho předčasnou smrtí. Další vylepšení Binet-Simonovy škály bylo publikováno v roce 1916 Lewisem M. Termanem ze Stanfordovy univerzity, který do ní začlenil návrh německého psychologa Williama Sterna, že jednotlivcova inteligenční úroveň by měla být měřena jako intelligenční quocient . Termanův test, který byl pojmenován Stanford-Binetova inteligenční škála, vytvořil základ pro jeden stále běžně používaný moderní inteligenční test. Wikipedia

„Milujte tak, abyste se nezamilovali, chcete-li být šťastni.“

—  Alfred Binet

Varianta: Milujte tak, aby jste se nezamilovali, chcete-li být šťastni!

„By following up this idea, also, we might go a little further. We might arrive at the conviction that our present science is human, petty, and contingent; that it is closely linked with the structure of our sensory organs; that this structure results from the evolution which fashioned these organs; that this evolution has been an accident of history; that in the future it may be different; and that, consequently, by the side or in the stead of our modern science, the work of our eyes and hands—and also of our words—there might have been constituted, there may still be constituted, sciences entirely and extraordinarily new—auditory, olfactory, and gustatory sciences, and even others derived from other kinds of sensations which we can neither foresee nor conceive because they are not, for the moment, differentiated in us. Outside the matter we know, a very special matter fashioned of vision and touch, there may exist other matter with totally different properties. …We must, by setting aside the mechanical theory, free ourselves from a too narrow conception of the constitution of matter. And this liberation will be to us a great advantage which we shall soon reap. We shall avoid the error of believing that mechanics is the only real thing and that all that cannot be explained by mechanics must be incomprehensible. We shall then gain more liberty of mind for understanding what the union of the soul with the body may be.“

—  Alfred Binet

Zdroj: The Mind and the Brain, 1907, p. 43

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„It is necessary to protect oneself from over exaggeration; one must not suppose that there exists, even in the realm of partial memory, an absolutely pure auditory type; real life does not make such schemas… In reality, when one says that a person belongs to the auditory type… one wants to say simply that with regard to that person the auditory memory is preponderant.“

—  Alfred Binet

Alfred Binet (1894). Psychologies des grands calculateurs et joueurs d’echecs. Paris: Hachette. p. 71; As cited in: John Carson, "Minding matter/mattering mind: Knowledge and the subject in nineteenth-century psychology." in: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C. 30.3 (1999): p. 363

„p> When we attempt to understand the inmost nature of the outer world, we stand before it as before absolute darkness. There probably exists in nature, outside of ourselves, neither colour, odour, force, resistance, space, nor anything that we know as sensation. Light is produced by the excitement of the optic nerve, and it shines only in our brain; as to the excitement itself, there is nothing to prove that it is luminous; outside of us is profound darkness, or even worse, since darkness is the correlation of light. In the same way, all the sonorous excitements which assail us, the creakings of machines, the sounds of nature, the words and cries of our fellows are produced by excitements of our acoustic nerve; it is in our brain that noise is produced, outside there reigns a dead silence. The same may be said of all our other senses. …In short, our nervous system, which enables us to communicate with objects, prevents us, on the other hand, from knowing their nature. It is an organ of relation with the outer world; it is also, for us, a cause of isolation. We never go outside ourselves. We are walled in. And all we can say of matter and of the outer world is, that it is revealed to us solely by the sensations it affords us, that it is the unknown cause of our sensations, the inaccessible excitant of our organs of the senses, and that the ideas we are able to form as to the nature and the properties of that excitant, are necessarily derived from our sensations, and are subjective to the same degree as those sensations themselves.</p“

—  Alfred Binet

Zdroj: The Mind and the Brain, 1907, p. 25

„Comprehension, inventiveness, direction, and criticism: intelligence is contained in these four words.“

—  Alfred Binet

Alfred Binet (1909, 118) as cited in: Seymour Bernard Sarason, ‎John Doris (1979), Educational handicap, public policy, and social history. p. 32
Modern ideas about children, 1909/1975

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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