Pierre Joseph Proudhon citáty

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Pierre Joseph Proudhon

Datum narození: 15. leden 1809
Datum úmrtí: 19. leden 1865

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon byl francouzský typograf a vzdělanec-samouk, raně socialistický myslitel, který zpopularizoval tvrzení jako „vlastnictví je krádež“ a „Bůh je zlý“. Byl také vůbec prvním, kdo sám sebe nazval anarchistou, naplňuje tak poprvé pojem anarchie pozitivním významem. Je zakladatelem politicko-ekonomického systému, tzv. mutualismu a teoretikem samosprávy pracujících.



„Vlastnictví je krádež!“

„Nejvyšší dovršení společnosti spočívá ve spojení pořádku a anarchie.“


„Být ovládán znamená být sledován, pod dohledem, špehován, veden, uzákoněn, reglementován, ohrazen, indoktrinován, přesvědčován, kontrolován, oceňován, odhadován, cenzurován, komandován lidmi, kteří nemají ani nárok, ani znalost, ani ctnost. Být ovládán znamená být při každém pohybu zaznemenán, zaprotokolován, zaregistrován, ohodnocen, orazítkován, změřen, oceněn, zdaněn, puncován, propuštěn, zmocněn, oznámkován, pokárán, zaneprázdněn, vyřazen, usměrněn, korigován. Pod záminkou veřejné užitečnosti a ve jménu obecného zájmu být využit, prozkoumán, odírán, vykořisťován, zmonopolizován, vydírán, vysáván, klamán, okrádán; a pak při sebemenším odporu, při prvním slovu stížnosti ohodnocen důtkou, pokutován, hanoben, urážen, pronásledován, vyplísněn, zbit, odzbrojen, svázán, uvězněn, zastřelen, bombardován, souzen, odsouzen, deportován, obětován, prodán, zrazen, a na vrchol všeho zneužit, napálen, pohaněn, zneuctěn. Taková je vláda, její spravedlnost, její morálka! Ó, lidská bytosti! Je možné, že po šedesát století jsi hnila v této odpornosti?“

„To be GOVERNED is to be watched, inspected, spied upon, directed, law-driven, numbered, regulated, enrolled, indoctrinated, preached at, controlled, checked, estimated, valued, censured, commanded, by creatures who have neither the right nor the wisdom nor the virtue to do so. To be GOVERNED is to be at every operation, at every transaction noted, registered, counted, taxed, stamped, measured, numbered, assessed, licensed, authorized, admonished, prevented, forbidden, reformed, corrected, punished. It is, under pretext of public utility, and in the name of the general interest, to be place under contribution, drilled, fleeced, exploited, monopolized, extorted from, squeezed, hoaxed, robbed; then, at the slightest resistance, the first word of complaint, to be repressed, fined, vilified, harassed, hunted down, abused, clubbed, disarmed, bound, choked, imprisoned, judged, condemned, shot, deported, sacrificed, sold, betrayed; and to crown all, mocked, ridiculed, derided, outraged, dishonored. That is government; that is its justice; that is its morality."
General Idea of the Revolution in the Nineteenth Century, translated by John Beverly Robinson (London: Freedom Press, 1923), pp. 293-294.“

„The great are only great because we are on our knees. Let us rise“

„Why, how can you ask such a question? You are a republican."
A republican! Yes; but that word specifies nothing. Res publica; that is, the public thing. Now, whoever is interested in public affairs -- no matter under what form of government -- may call himself a republican. Even kings are republicans."
Well! You are a democrat?"
No."
What! "you would have a monarchy?"
No."
A Constitutionalist?"
God forbid."
Then you are an aristocrat?"
Not at all!"
You want a mixed form of government?"
Even less."
Then what are you?"
I am an anarchist."


Oh! I understand you; you speak satirically. This is a hit at the government."


By no means. I have just given you my serious and well-considered profession of faith. Although a firm friend of order, I am (in the full force of the term) an anarchist. Listen to me.“
Proudhon: What Is Property?

„Property is theft!“ Quest-ce que la propriété? ou Recherches sur le principe du droit et du gouvernement

„When deeds speak, words are nothing.“


„Of a real, true contract, on whatsoever subject, there is no vestige in Rousseau's book. To give an
exact idea of his theory, I cannot do better than compare it with a commercial agreement, in which
the names of the parties, the nature and value of the goods, products and services involved, the
conditions of quality, delivery, price, reimbursement, everything in fact which constitutes the
material of contracts, is omitted, and nothing is mentioned but penalties and jurisdictions.

"Indeed, Citizen of Geneva, you talk well. But before holding forth about the sovereign and the
prince, about the policeman and the judge, tell me first what is my share of the bargain? What? You
expect me to sign an agreement in virtue of which I may be prosecuted for a thousand
transgressions, by municipal, rural, river and forest police, handed over to tribunals, judged,
condemned for damage, cheating, swindling, theft, bankruptcy, robbery, disobedience to the laws of
the State, offence to public morals, vagabondage,--and in this agreement I find not a word of either
my rights or my obligations, I find only penalties!

"But every penalty no doubt presupposes a duty, and every duty corresponds to a right. Where then
in your agreement are my rights and duties? What have I promised to my fellow citizens? What
have they promised to me? Show it to me, for without that, your penalties are but excesses of
power, your law-controlled State a flagrant usurpation, your police, your judgment and your
executions so many abuses. You who have so well denied property, who have impeached so
eloquently the inequality of conditions among men, what dignity, what heritage, have you for me in
your republic, that you should claim the right to judge me, to imprison me, to take my life and
honor? Perfidious declaimer, have you inveighed so loudly against exploiters and tyrants, only to
deliver me to them without defence?“
General Idea of the Revolution in the Nineteenth Century

„To be GOVERNED is to be watched, inspected, spied upon, directed, law-driven, numbered, regulated, enrolled, indoctrinated, preached at, controlled, checked, estimated, censured, commanded… noted, registered, counted, taxed, stamped, measured, numbered, assessed, licensed, authorized, admonished, prevented, forbidden, reformed, corrected, punished… drilled, fleeced, exploited, monopolized, extorted from, squeezed, hoaxed, robbed… repressed, fined, vilified, harassed, hunted down, abused, clubbed, disarmed, bound, choked, imprisoned, judged, condemned, shot, deported, sacrificed, sold, betrayed… mocked, ridiculed, derided, outraged, dishonoured. That is government; that is its justice; that is its morality.“

„la propriété, c'est le vol!“ Théorie de la propriété

„It is through separation that you will win: no representatives, and no candidates!“


„Nevertheless, it is with the help of these metaphysical toys that governments have been established since the beginning of the world, and it is with their help that we shall come to resolve the enigma of politics, if we are willing to make the slightest effort to do so. I hope I will be forgiven, then, for labouring this point, as one does in teaching the rudiments of grammar to children.“ El principio federativo

„When politics and home life have become one and the same, when economic problems have been solved in such a way that individual and collective interests are identical – all constraints having disappeared – it is evident that we will be in a state of total liverty or anarchy.“

„When politics and home life have become one and the same, when economic problems have been solved in such a way that individual and collective interests are identical – all constraints having disappeared – it is evident that we will be in a state of total liberty or anarchy.“ What Is Property?

„But what is sovereignty? It is, they say, the power to make laws. Another absurdity, a relic of despotism. The nation had long seen kings issuing their commands in this form: for such is our pleasure; it wished to taste in its turn the pleasure of making laws. For fifty years it has brought them forth by myriads; always, be it understood, through the agency of representatives. The play is far from ended.
The definition of sovereignty was derived from the definition of the law. The law, they said, is the expression of the will of the sovereign: then, under a monarchy, the law is the expression of the will of the king; in a republic, the law is the expression of the will of the people. Aside from the difference in the number of wills, the two systems are exactly identical: both share the same error, namely, that the law is the expression of a will; it ought to be the expression of a fact. Moreover they followed good leaders: they took the citizen of Geneva for their prophet, and the contrat social for their Koran.
Bias and prejudice are apparent in all the phrases of the new legislators. The nation had suffered from a multitude of exclusions and privileges; its representatives issued the following declaration: All men are equal by nature and before the law; an ambiguous and redundant declaration. Men are equal by nature: does that mean that they are equal in size, beauty, talents, and virtue? No; they meant, then, political and civil equality. Then it would have been sufficient to have said: All men are equal before the law.“
What Is Property?

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