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Harry Truman

Datum narození: 8. květen 1884
Datum úmrtí: 26. prosinec 1972
Další jména: Harry Spencer Truman

Harry S. Truman byl 34. viceprezidentem a 33. prezidentem Spojených států amerických v letech 1945–1953. Do úřadu nastoupil v dubnu 1945 po smrti Franklina D. Roosevelta.

V době, kdy zastával prezidentský úřad, došlo k množství zásadních událostí. Těsně po jeho nástupu v srpnu 1945 dopadla na Hirošimu první atomová bomba, v letech 1945–1947 začala studená válka a byl to on, kdo Trumanovou doktrínou vytyčil základní postoj USA vůči rozpínání komunismu. USA se aktivně podílely na hospodářské obnově Evropy Marshallovým plánem a zároveň z Evropy stahovaly americké jednotky. V roce 1945 vznikla Organizace spojených národů, Spojené státy prošly v letech 1947–1955 obdobím panického strachu z komunismu, období tzv. red scare .

Pocházel ze střední vrstvy a v mládí prošel na rozdíl od F. D. Roosevelta strázněmi běžného Američana. Po celou kariéru si uchoval lidovou image a přes počáteční nedůvěru v jeho schopnosti si dokázal získat respekt a pověst silného a rozhodného státníka. Byla pro něj ať již na postu soudce nebo prezidenta typická také velká píle a zodpovědnost, kterou vůči své práci pociťoval. Wikipedia

„Když ti vadí horko, nemotej se v kuchyni.“

—  Harry Truman

Z roku 1950
Zdroj: King, Stephen: Running Man

„If wars in the future are to be prevented the nations must be united in their determination to keep the peace under law.“

—  Harry Truman

Address to Congress (1945)
Kontext: If wars in the future are to be prevented the nations must be united in their determination to keep the peace under law.
Nothing is more essential to the future peace of the world than continued cooperation of the nations which had to muster the force necessary to defeat the conspiracy of the Axis powers to dominate the world.
While these great states have a special responsibility to enforce the peace, their responsibility is based upon the obligations resting upon all states, large and small, not to use force in international relations except in the defense of law. The responsibility of the great states is to serve and not to dominate the world.

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„It is amazing what you can accomplish if you do not care who gets the credit“

—  Harry Truman

This is attributed to Truman in some sources, but a similar saying is recorded as early as 1909 https://books.google.com/books?id=bidJAAAAIAAJ&dq=how%20much%20%22care%20who%20gets%20the%20credit%22&pg=PA26#v=onepage&q=how%20much%20%22care%20who%20gets%20the%20credit%22&f=false.
Misattributed

„We have used it in order to shorten the agony of war, in order to save the lives of thousands and thousands of young Americans. We shall continue to use it until we completely destroy Japan's power to make war. Only a Japanese surrender will stop us.“

—  Harry Truman

Report on the Potsdam Conference (1945)
Kontext: I realize the tragic significance of the atomic bomb. Its production and its use were not lightly undertaken by this Government. But we knew that our enemies were on the search for it. We know now how close they were to finding it. And we knew the disaster which would come to this Nation, and to all peace-loving nations, to all civilization, if they had found it first. That is why we felt compelled to undertake the long and uncertain and costly labor of discovery and production. We won the race of discovery against the Germans.
Having found the bomb we have used it. We have used it against those who attacked us without warning at Pearl Harbor, against those who have starved and beaten and executed American prisoners of war, against those who have abandoned all pretense of obeying international laws of warfare. We have used it in order to shorten the agony of war, in order to save the lives of thousands and thousands of young Americans. We shall continue to use it until we completely destroy Japan's power to make war. Only a Japanese surrender will stop us.

„It is an awful responsibility which has come to us.“

—  Harry Truman

Report on the Potsdam Conference (1945)
Kontext: It is an awful responsibility which has come to us.
We thank God that it has come to us, instead of to our enemies; and we pray that He may guide us to use it in His ways and for His purposes.

„We are now prepared to obliterate more rapidly and completely every productive enterprise the Japanese have above ground in any city.“

—  Harry Truman

Announcing the Bombing of Hiroshima (1945)
Kontext: We are now prepared to obliterate more rapidly and completely every productive enterprise the Japanese have above ground in any city. We shall destroy their docks, their factories, and their communications. Let there be no mistake; we shall completely destroy Japan's power to make war.
It was to spare the Japanese people from utter destruction that the ultimatum of July 26 was issued at Potsdam. Their leaders promptly rejected that ultimatum. If they do not now accept our terms they may expect a rain of ruin from the air, the like of which has never been seen on this earth.

„I'm proud that I'm a politician. A politician is a man who understands government, and it takes a politician to run a government. A statesman is a politician who's been dead 10 or 15 years.“

—  Harry Truman

Impromptu remarks http://books.google.com/books?id=2Tu3bScwKKAC&q=%22I'm+proud+that+I'm+a+politician+A+politician+is+a+man+who+understands+government+and+it+takes+a+politician+to+run+a+government+A+statesman+is+a+politician+who's+been+dead+10+or+15+years%22&pg=PT289#v=onepage before the Reciprocity Club, Washington, D.C. (11 April 1958)
As quoted in The New York World Telegram & Sun (12 April 1958)

„I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.
I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.“

—  Harry Truman

Speech to a joint session of the US Congress (12 March 1947), outlining what became known as The Truman Doctrine
Kontext: At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one.
One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression.
The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio; fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms.
I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.
I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.

„Our victory in Europe was more than a victory of arms.
It was a victory of one way of life over another. It was a victory of an ideal founded on the rights of the common man, on the dignity of the human being, on the conception of the State as the servant — and not the master — of its people.“

—  Harry Truman

Report on the Potsdam Conference (1945)
Kontext: Our victory in Europe was more than a victory of arms.
It was a victory of one way of life over another. It was a victory of an ideal founded on the rights of the common man, on the dignity of the human being, on the conception of the State as the servant — and not the master — of its people.
A free people showed that it was able to defeat professional soldiers whose only moral arms were obedience and the worship of force.
We tell ourselves that we have emerged from this war the most powerful nation in the world — the most powerful nation, perhaps, in all history. That is true, but not in the sense some of us believe it to be true.
The war has shown us that we have tremendous resources to make all the materials for war. It has shown us that we have skillful workers and managers and able generals, and a brave people capable of bearing arms.
All these things we knew before.
The new thing — the thing which we had not known — the thing we have learned now and should never forget, is this: that a society of self-governing men is more powerful, more enduring, more creative than any other kind of society, however disciplined, however centralized.

„We won the race of discovery against the Germans.
Having found the bomb we have used it.“

—  Harry Truman

Report on the Potsdam Conference (1945)
Kontext: I realize the tragic significance of the atomic bomb. Its production and its use were not lightly undertaken by this Government. But we knew that our enemies were on the search for it. We know now how close they were to finding it. And we knew the disaster which would come to this Nation, and to all peace-loving nations, to all civilization, if they had found it first. That is why we felt compelled to undertake the long and uncertain and costly labor of discovery and production. We won the race of discovery against the Germans.
Having found the bomb we have used it. We have used it against those who attacked us without warning at Pearl Harbor, against those who have starved and beaten and executed American prisoners of war, against those who have abandoned all pretense of obeying international laws of warfare. We have used it in order to shorten the agony of war, in order to save the lives of thousands and thousands of young Americans. We shall continue to use it until we completely destroy Japan's power to make war. Only a Japanese surrender will stop us.

„At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one.“

—  Harry Truman

Speech to a joint session of the US Congress (12 March 1947), outlining what became known as The Truman Doctrine
Kontext: At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one.
One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression.
The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio; fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms.
I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.
I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.

„Desperate men are liable to destroy the structure of their society to find in the wreckage some substitute for hope.“

—  Harry Truman

Report on the Potsdam Conference (1945)
Kontext: Any man who sees Europe now must realize that victory in a great war is not something you win once and for all, like victory in a ball game. Victory in a great war is something that must be won and kept won. It can be lost after you have won it — if you are careless or negligent or indifferent.
Europe today is hungry. I am not talking about Germans. I am talking about the people of the countries which were overrun and devastated by the Germans, and particularly about the people of Western Europe. Many of them lack clothes and fuel and tools and shelter and raw materials. They lack the means to restore their cities and their factories.
As the winter comes on, the distress will increase. Unless we do what we can to help, we may lose next winter what we won at such terrible cost last spring. Desperate men are liable to destroy the structure of their society to find in the wreckage some substitute for hope. If we let Europe go cold and hungry, we may lose some of the foundations of order on which the hope for worldwide peace must rest.
We must help to the limits of our strength. And we will.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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