Jean Marie Guyau citáty

Jean Marie Guyau foto
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Jean Marie Guyau

Datum narození: 28. říjen 1854
Datum úmrtí: 31. březen 1888

Reklama

Jean-Marie Guyau byl francouzský filozof.

Guyau se snaží o sjednocení pozitivismu a filozofie života. Jeho hlavní dílo je kniha „Náčrt morálky bez povinnosti a bez trestů“. K porozumění jeho myšlení je třeba vědět, že náboženství ve smyslu víry v druhý svět pokládá za překonané. Z náboženství pro Guyaua zbývá pouze všeobecný pohled závislosti, pociťovaný před velikostí vesmíru.

Guyau nemůže budovat na základě náboženství, ale nechce se ani přiklonit ke Kantovi, jehož morálka na nás chce působit z „inteligibilního“ světa mimo prostor a čas. Soudí, že formální kritérium není vhodným základem morálky, protože mravní povinnost zavazující k určitému jednání nelze pro jednotlivého člověka oddělovat od konkrétního obsahu daného skutku. Je možno pozorovat, že mnozí lidé se cítí k určitému jednání zavázáni tak jako jiní lidé k „dobrým“ činům.

Zde se Guyau projevuje jako filozof života: nachází pramen morálky v samotném životě, v tvůrčí touze, která je přítomná ve všem živém. Guyauova vůle je více produchovnělá, méně egoistická či brutální. U Guyaua vidíme činit jeden z čestných a zoufalých pokusů najít východisko z dilematu, že lidé naléhavě potřebují všeobecně platné mravní měřítko.

Citáty Jean Marie Guyau

Reklama

„The purely selfish happiness of certain Epicureans is a chimera, an abstraction, an impossibility; the true human pleasures are all more or less social. Pure egoism, rather than being an affirmation of the self, is a mutilation of the self.“

— Jean-Marie Guyau
Context: A third equivalent of duty is borrowed from sensibility and not, like the preceding, from intelligence and activity. It’s the growing fusion of sensibilities, and the ever increasing sociable character of elevated pleasures, from which results a kind of duty or superior necessity which pushes us naturally and rationally towards others. By virtue of evolution, our pleasures grow and become increasingly impersonal; we cannot experience enjoyment within our selves as if on a deserted isle. Our milieu, to which we better adapt ourselves every day, is human society, and we can no more be happy outside of this milieu than we can breathe outside the air. The purely selfish happiness of certain Epicureans is a chimera, an abstraction, an impossibility; the true human pleasures are all more or less social. Pure egoism, rather than being an affirmation of the self, is a mutilation of the self. [https://www.marxists.org/archive/guyau/1885/morality.htm Outline of a Morality Without Obligation or Sanction] (1885).

„The only means of being great in life is having the consciousness that you will not retreat before death.“

— Jean-Marie Guyau
Context: We can judge ourselves and our ideal by posing this question: For what idea, for what person would I be ready to risk my life? He who cannot answer such a question has a vulgar and empty heart. He is incapable of feeling or doing anything grand in life, since he is unable to go beyond his individuality. He is impotent and sterile, dragging along his selfish ego like the tortoise its shell. On the contrary, he who has present in his spirit the idea of death for his ideal seeks to maintain this ideal at the height of this possible sacrifice. He draws from this supreme risk a constant tension and an indefatigable energy of the will. The only means of being great in life is having the consciousness that you will not retreat before death. [https://www.marxists.org/archive/guyau/1895/sacrifice.htm Sacrifice], Pages Choisies des Grands Écrivains (1895).

„For what idea, for what person would I be ready to risk my life?“

— Jean-Marie Guyau
Context: We can judge ourselves and our ideal by posing this question: For what idea, for what person would I be ready to risk my life? He who cannot answer such a question has a vulgar and empty heart. He is incapable of feeling or doing anything grand in life, since he is unable to go beyond his individuality. He is impotent and sterile, dragging along his selfish ego like the tortoise its shell. On the contrary, he who has present in his spirit the idea of death for his ideal seeks to maintain this ideal at the height of this possible sacrifice. He draws from this supreme risk a constant tension and an indefatigable energy of the will. The only means of being great in life is having the consciousness that you will not retreat before death. [https://www.marxists.org/archive/guyau/1895/sacrifice.htm Sacrifice], Pages Choisies des Grands Écrivains (1895).

„One must see there the living forces that demand to be expended, and we must act.“

— Jean-Marie Guyau
Context: A child saw a butterfly poised on a blade of grass; the butterfly had been made numb by the north wind. The child plucked the blade of grass, and the living flower that was at its tip, still numb, remained attached. He returned home, holding his find in his hand. A ray of sunlight broke through, striking the butterfly’s wing, and suddenly, revived and light, the living flower flew away into the glare. All of us, scholars and workers, we are like the butterfly: our strength is made of a ray of light. Not even: of the hope of a ray. One must thus know how to hope; hope is what carries us higher and farther. “But it’s an illusion!” What do you know of this? Should we not take a step for fear that one day the earth will slide away from under our feet? Looking far into the past or the future is not the only thing; one must look into oneself. One must see there the living forces that demand to be expended, and we must act. [https://www.marxists.org/archive/guyau/1895/hope.htm The Philosophy of Hope], Pages Choisies des Grands Écrivains" (1895).

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