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Paul Ricoeur

Datum narození: 27. únor 1913
Datum úmrtí: 20. květen 2005

Paul Ricœur byl francouzský křesťanský filosof. Zabýval se hlavně fenomenologií, výkladem textů, včetně biblických, filosofickou etikou a filosofií jednání.

Rozsáhlé Ricœurovo dílo zahrnuje mj. filosofii jednání, času, jazyka a vyprávění, sociální filosofii a filosofii dějin, výklady biblických textů a díla Freudova a pohybuje se mezi

fenomenologií

hermeneutikou a

etikou

Za své životní dílo získal Ricœur řadu ocenění, mezi nimi Velkou cenu francouzské akademie, Hegelovu cenu ve Stuttgartu, Cenu Karla Jasperse univerzity v Heidelbergu, Cenu Leopolda Lucase na univerzitě Tübingen a Cenu papeže Pavla VI. Během období normalizace navštěvoval též bytové semináře v Československu a roku 1993 byl prvním laureátem Ceny Karla IV., kterou uděluje Univerzita Karlova v Praze.


„Co se mě týče, nedokážu v sobě zahlédnout primární úzkost ze smrti. Je to ve mně jen chladná myšlenka, jíž schází jakákoliv síla a takříkajíc zakotvení v existenci.“

„I find myself only by losing myself.“


„But myth is something else than an explanation of the world, of history, and of destiny. Myth expresses in terms of the world - that is, of the other world or the second world - the understanding that man has of himself in relation to the foundation and the limit of his existence. Hence to demythologize is to interpret myth, that is, to relate the objective representations of the myth to the self-understanding which is both shown and concealed in it.“

„Man is this plural and collective unity in which the unity of destination and the differences of destinies are to be understood through each other.“

„The dictionary contains no metaphors.“

„The spectacle is at the same time the mirage of self in the mirror of things.“

„We must recognize the fact that philosophy at the present time is entirely at an impasse concerning the problem of the origin of values. This theoretical failure is reflected in the practical antinomy between submission and rebellion that infects the daily concerns of education, politics, and ethics. If no decision can be made at this level, we must retrace our steps, extricate ourselves from the impasse, and try to gain access, by means of a nonethical approach, to the problem of autonomy and obedience.“ The Conflict of Interpretations

„La fedeltà al passato non è un dato bensì un voto. Come tutti i voti può essere deluso, o tradito“


„With guilt there arises indeed a sort of demand which can be called scrupulosity and whose ambiguous character is extremely interesting. A scrupulous consciousness is a delicate consciousness, a precise consciousness, enamored of increasing perfection... This atomization of the law into a multitude of commandments entails an endless 'juridization' of action and a quasi-obsessional ritualization of daily life... With it we enter into the hell of guilt, such as St. Paul described it: the law itself becomes a source of sin.“ The Conflict of Interpretations

„Beneath history, memory and forgetting
Beneath memory and forgetting, life.“

„There is also present in every human being, in everyone's biography-although sometimes harrowing cases of systematic neglect, present in the matter of absence, so if longing for that which never was there then too, deeply suspect, should have been.“

„I believe that we are henceforth incapable of returning to an order of moral life which would take the form of a simple submission to commandments or to an alien or supreme will, even if this will were represented as divine. We must accept as a positive good the critique of ethics and religion that has been undertaken by the school of suspicion. From it we have learned to understand that the commandment that gives death, not life, is a product and projection of our own weakness.“ The Conflict of Interpretations


„Guilt cannot, in fact, express itself, except in the indirect language of "captivity" and "infection," inherited from the two prior stages. Thus both symbols are transposed "inward" to express a freedom that enslaves itself, affects itself, and infects itself by its own choice. Conversely, the symbolic and non-literal character of the captivity of sin and the infection of defilement becomes quite clear when these symbols are used to denote a dimension of freedom itself; then and only then do we know that they are symbols, when they reveal a situation that is centered in the relation of oneself to oneself. Why this recourse to the prior symbolism? Because the paradox of a captive free will - the paradox of a servile will - is insupportable for thought. That freedom must be delivered and that this deliverance is deliverance from self-enslavement cannot be said directly; yet it is the central theme of "salvation“

„By it's mimetic intention, the world of fiction leads us to the heart of the real world of action.“ Hermeneutics & the Human Sciences: Essays on Language, Action & Interpretation

„We must recognize the fact that philosophy at the present time is entirely at an impasse concerning the problem of the origin of values. This theoretical failure is reflected in the practical antinomy between submission and rebellion that infects the daily concerns of education, politics, and ethics. If no decision can be mad at this level, we must retrace our steps, extricate ourselves from the impasse, and try to gain access, by means of a nonethical approach, to the problem of autonomy and obedience.“ The Conflict of Interpretations

„The power of impulses which haunt our phantasies, of imaginary modes of being which ignite the poetic word, and of the all-embracing, that most powerful something which menaces us so long as we feel unloved, in all these registers and perhaps in others as well, the dialectic of power and form takes place, which insures that language only captures the foam on the surface of life.“ Interpretation Theory: Discourse and the Surplus of Meaning

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