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Wilhelm Reich

Datum narození: 24. březen 1897
Datum úmrtí: 3. listopad 1957

Wilhelm Reich byl rakousko-americký psychiatr a psychoanalytik židovského původu se silnými inspiracemi v marxismu. Byl žákem Sigmunda Freuda.

Reich se pokoušel skloubit marxismus, psychoanalýzu a kvantovou fyziku. Později do svého systému začlenil též jógu a východní filozofie, především teorii čaker a kundaliní.

Přijal Freudův koncept libida a rozšířil ho o sociologickou dimenzi z marxistické pozice. Vytvořil tzv. sexuální politickou ekonomii. Byl také přesvědčen, že libido je energií, která podléhá stejným fyzikálním zákonitostem jako jiné formy energie.

Později teorii libida přeformuloval do teorie orgonu. Dospěl k přesvědčení, že orgon má kosmický původ a nevzniká v těle, ale člověk je jeho přijímačem. Sestrojil orgonovou komoru, kde lidé měli být vystavováni silnému proudu orgonu a takto léčeni. Na principu orgonu později sestrojil i přístroj, jímž údajně dokázal rozhánět mraky na obloze či přivolat déšť.

Jako Žid a komunista uprchl v roce 1933 z Německa po nástupu Adolfa Hitlera do Skandinávie. V roce 1939 přesídlil do Kalifornie v USA. Po druhé světové válce se stal jako marxista podezřelým z protiamerické činnosti a Americký úřad pro ochranu potravin navíc zahájil tažení proti jeho orgonovým přístrojům. Byl uvězněn a po ročním pobytu ve vězení zemřel. FDA mezitím nechala spálit mnoho jeho nepublikovaných teoretických materiálů o orgonu.

„In this strictly Marxist sense, the capitalistic system continues to exist in Russia. And it will continue to exist as long as the masses of people continue to lack responsibility and to crave authority.“

—  Wilhelm Reich, kniha The Mass Psychology of Fascism

Preface to the Third Edition (August 1942)
The Mass Psychology of Fascism (1933)
Kontext: In the strictly Marxist sense, there is not even in Soviet Russia a state socialism but a state capitalism. According to Marx, the social condition "capitalism" does not consist in the existence of individual capitalists, but in the existence of the specific "capitalist mode of production", that is, in the production of exchange values instead of use values, in wage work of the masses and in the production of surplus value, which is appropriated by the state or the private owners, and not by the society of working people. In this strictly Marxist sense, the capitalistic system continues to exist in Russia. And it will continue to exist as long as the masses of people continue to lack responsibility and to crave authority.

„The great man, at one time, also was a very little man, but he developed one important ability: he learned to see where he was small in his thinking, and actions.“

—  Wilhelm Reich, kniha Listen, Little Man!

Listen, Little Man! (1948)
Kontext: You are different from the really great man in only one thing: The great man, at one time, also was a very little man, but he developed one important ability: he learned to see where he was small in his thinking, and actions. Under the pressure of some task which was dear to him he learned better and better to sense the threat that comes from his smallness and pettiness. The great man, then, knows when and in what he is a little man.

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„Your life will be good and secure when aliveness will mean more to you than security; love more than money; your freedom more than party line or public opinion“

—  Wilhelm Reich, kniha Listen, Little Man!

Listen, Little Man! (1948)
Kontext: You beg for happiness in life, but security is more important to you, even if it costs you your spine or your life. Your life will be good and secure when aliveness will mean more to you than security; love more than money; your freedom more than party line or public opinion; when your thinking will be in harmony with your feelings; when the teachers of your children will be better paid than the politicians; when you will have more respect for the love between man and woman than for a marriage license.

„You dare not think that you ever might experience your self differently: free instead of cowed; open instead of tactical; loving openly instead of like a thief in the night.“

—  Wilhelm Reich, kniha Listen, Little Man!

Listen, Little Man! (1948)
Kontext: "What right do you have to tell me things?" I can see this question in your apprehensive look. I hear this question from your impertinent mouth, Little Man. You are afraid to look at yourself, you are afraid of criticism, Little Man, just as you are afraid of the power they promise you. You would not know how to use this power. You dare not think that you ever might experience your self differently: free instead of cowed; open instead of tactical; loving openly instead of like a thief in the night. You despise yourself Little Man. You say: "Who am I to have an opinion of my own, to determine my own life and to declare the world to be mine?" You are right: Who are you to make a claim to your life?

„What you worship in the Christ child, you poor little marriage-ridden man, is your own yearning for sexual freedom!“

—  Wilhelm Reich, kniha Listen, Little Man!

Listen, Little Man! (1948)
Kontext: You worship the Christ child. The Christ child was born of a mother who had no marriage certificate. What you worship in the Christ child, you poor little marriage-ridden man, is your own yearning for sexual freedom!

„The Little Man does not know that he is little, and he is afraid of knowing it. He covers up his smallness and narrowness with illusions of strength and greatness, of others' strength and greatness.“

—  Wilhelm Reich, kniha Listen, Little Man!

Listen, Little Man! (1948)
Kontext: The Little Man does not know that he is little, and he is afraid of knowing it. He covers up his smallness and narrowness with illusions of strength and greatness, of others' strength and greatness. He is proud of his great generals but not proud of himself. He admires thought which he did not have and not the thought he did have. He believes in things all the more thoroughly the less he comprehends them, and does not believe in the correctness of those ideas which he comprehends most easily.

„You are Great, Little Man, when you are not small and petty.“

—  Wilhelm Reich, kniha Listen, Little Man!

Listen, Little Man! (1948)
Kontext: You are Great, Little Man, when you are not small and petty. You are great when you carry on your trade lovingly, when you enjoy carving and building and painting and decorating and sowing, when you enjoy the blue sky and the deer and the dew and music and dancing, your growing children and the beautiful body of your woman or your man, when you learn to understand and think about life.

„This point is accentuated in a world crisis where biopathic men hold in their hands power over ruined, destitute multitudes.“

—  Wilhelm Reich

Response to FDA complaint (1954)
Kontext: The present critical state of international human affairs requires security and safety from nuisance interferences with efforts toward full, honest, determined clarification of man's relationship to nature within and without himself; in other words, his relationship to the Law of Nature. It is not permissible, either morally, legally, or factually, to force a natural scientist to expose his scientific results and methods of basic research in court. This point is accentuated in a world crisis where biopathic men hold in their hands power over ruined, destitute multitudes.

„The Little Man does not want to hear the truth about himself. He does not want the great responsibility which is his. He wants to remain a Little Man.“

—  Wilhelm Reich, kniha Listen, Little Man!

Listen, Little Man! (1948)
Kontext: My intellect tells me: "Tell the truth at any cost." The Little Man in me says: "It is stupid to expose oneself to the little man, to put oneself at his mercy. The Little Man does not want to hear the truth about himself. He does not want the great responsibility which is his. He wants to remain a Little Man. He wants to remain a Little Man, or wants to become a little great man. He wants to become rich, or a party leader, or commander of a legion, or secretary of the society for the abolition of vice. But he does not want to assume responsibility for his work..."

„The discovery of the natural biological work democracy in international human intercourse is the answer to fascism. This will be no less true even if not one of the living sex-economists, orgone biophysicists or work democrats should live to see its general functioning and its victory over the irrationalism in social life.“

—  Wilhelm Reich, kniha The Mass Psychology of Fascism

Preface to the Third Edition (August 1942)
The Mass Psychology of Fascism (1933)
Kontext: It is obvious that the fascist mass pestilence, with its background of thousands of years, cannot be mastered with social measures corresponding to the past three hundred years.
The discovery of the natural biological work democracy in international human intercourse is the answer to fascism. This will be no less true even if not one of the living sex-economists, orgone biophysicists or work democrats should live to see its general functioning and its victory over the irrationalism in social life.

„You are "free" only in one sense: free from education in governing your life yourself, free from self-criticism.“

—  Wilhelm Reich, kniha Listen, Little Man!

Listen, Little Man! (1948)
Kontext: Every physician, shoemaker, mechanic or educator must know his shortcomings if he is to do his work and make his living. For some decades, you have begun to play a governing role on this earth. It is on your thinking and your actions that the future of humanity depends. But your teachers and masters do not tell you how you really think and are; nobody dares to voice the one criticism of you which could make you capable of governing your own fate. You are "free" only in one sense: free from education in governing your life yourself, free from self-criticism.

„To define freedom is the same as to define sexual health. But nobody will openly admit this.“

—  Wilhelm Reich, kniha The Mass Psychology of Fascism

Section 3 : Work Democracy versus Politics. The Natural Social Forces for the Mastery of the Emotional Plague
The Mass Psychology of Fascism (1933), Ch. 10 : Work Democracy
Kontext: Rulers and generals muster their troops. Magnates muster the sums of money which give them power. The fascist dictators muster the irrational human reactions which make it possible for them to attain and maintain their power over the masses. The scientists muster knowledge and means of research. But, thus far, no organization fighting for freedom has ever mustered the biological arsenal where the weapons are to be found for the establishment and the maintenance of human freedom. All precision of our social existence notwithstanding, there is as yet no definition of the word freedom which would be in keeping with natural science. No word is more misused and misunderstood.
To define freedom is the same as to define sexual health. But nobody will openly admit this. The advocacy of personal and social freedom is connected with anxiety and guilt feelings. As if to be free were a sin or at least not quite as it should be. Sex-economy makes this guilt feeling comprehensible: freedom without sexual self-determination is in itself a contradiction. But to be sexual means — according to the prevailing human structure — to be sinful or guilty. There are very few people who experience sexual love without guilt feeling. "Free love" has acquired a degrading meaning: it lost the meaning given it by the old fighters for freedom. In films and in books, to be genital and to be criminal are presented as the same thing.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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