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Jürgen Habermas

Datum narození: 18. červen 1929

Jürgen Habermas je německý neomarxistický filosof a sociolog, který vychází z tzv. frankfurtské školy.

Habermas je představitelem tzv. teorie komunikativního jednání , která tvrdí, že existují dva druhy jednání – komunikativní a instrumentální. Instrumentální jednání se nejvíce projevuje ve sféře reklamy a politiky a je nežádoucí, komunikativní jednání je pak přirozené, spravedlivé, a tudíž žádoucí. Habermas chce proto rozpracovat teorii podmínek, za nichž bude možná normální, nenarušená komunikace

Citáty Jürgen Habermas

„I v Evropském parlamentu hlasuje každá země podle národního zájmu....Máme povinnost seznámit se s požadavky, které se týkají všech Evropanů, s právními procedurami a institucemi. Máme povinnost být informováni o složitosti evropských problémů a tato vnímavost vůči politice spolupráce by měla orientovat veřejný diskurz.“

„Only one who takes over his own life history can see in it the realization of his self. Responsibility to take over one's own biography means to get clear about who one wants to be.“

„For the normative self-understanding of modernity, Christianity has functioned as more than just a precursor or catalyst. Universalistic egalitarianism, from which sprang the ideals of freedom and a collective life in solidarity, the autonomous conduct of life and emancipation, the individual morality of conscience, human rights and democracy, is the direct legacy of the Judaic ethic of justice and the Christian ethic of love. This legacy, substantially unchanged, has been the object of a continual critical reappropriation and reinterpretation. Up to this very day there is no alternative to it. And in light of the current challenges of a post-national constellation, we must draw sustenance now, as in the past, from this substance. Everything else is idle postmodern talk.“

„[Jürgen Habermas' obituary to friend and philosopher, Richard Rorty]

One small autobiographical piece by Rorty bears the title 'Wild Orchids and Trotsky.' In it, Rorty describes how as a youth he ambled around the blooming hillside in north-west New Jersey, and breathed in the stunning odour of the orchids. Around the same time he discovered a fascinating book at the home of his leftist parents, defending Leon Trotsky against Stalin. This was the origin of the vision that the young Rorty took with him to college: philosophy is there to reconcile the celestial beauty of orchids with Trotsky's dream of justice on earth. Nothing is sacred to Rorty the ironist. Asked at the end of his life about the 'holy', the strict atheist answered with words reminiscent of the young Hegel: 'My sense of the holy is bound up with the hope that some day my remote descendants will live in a global civilization in which love is pretty much the only law.“

„The parliament no longer is an 'assembly of wise men chosen as individual personalities by privileged strata, who sought to convince each other through arguments in public discussion on the assumption that the subsequent decision reached by the majority would be what was true and right for the national welfare.' Instead it has become the 'public rostrum on which, before the entire nation (which through radio an television participates in a specific fashion in this sphere of publicity), the government and the parties carrying it present and justify to the nation their political program, while the opposition attacks this program with the same opennes and develops its alternatives.“

„Today, the language of the market penetrates every pore and forces every interpersonal relation into the schema of individual preference.“

„Freedom may never be conceived merely negatively, as the absence of compulsion. Freedom conceived intersubjectively distinguishes itself from the arbitrary freedom of the isolated individual. No one is free until we are all free.“ Religion and Rationality: Essays on Reason, God & Modernity

„The scientistic faith in a science that will one day not only fulfill, but eliminate, personal self-conception through objectifying self-description is not science, but bad philosophy.“

„From the structure of language comes the explanation of why the human spirit is condemned to an odyssey - why it first finds its way to itself only on a detour via a complete externalization in other things and in other humans. Only at the greatest distance from itself does it become conscious of itself in its irreplaceable singularity as an individuated being.“ Postmetaphysical Thinking: Between Metaphysics and the Critique of Reason

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