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Friedrich Engels

Datum narození: 28. listopad 1820
Datum úmrtí: 5. srpen 1895

Friedrich Engels, v českém prostředí někdy uváděný jako Bedřich Engels byl německý politický filosof a ekonom, spoluzakladatel marxismu, vůdčí osobnost První i Druhé internacionály. Byl osobním přítelem Karla Marxe, s nímž se podílel prakticky na všech významných pracích z oblasti filosofie a ekonomie i na dílech o komunismu.

Díla

Anti-Dühring
Friedrich Engels

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„Hegel jako první správně postihl vztah mezi svobodou a nutností. Svoboda je pro něj vhled do nutnosti.“

—  Friedrich Engels, kniha Anti-Dühring

Často překládáno jako „Svoboda je poznaná nutnost.“

Anti-Dühring, 1. díl, 11. kapitola (1878)

Source: Originál: Hegel war der erste, der das Verhältnis von Freiheit und Notwendigkeit richtig darstellte. Für ihn ist die Freiheit die Einsicht in die Notwendigkeit. »Blind ist die Notwendigkeit nur, insofern dieselbe nicht begriffen wird.« http://www.mlwerke.de/me/me20/me20_032.htm#Kap_XI
Sám Engels asi interpretoval následující pasáž z Philosophische Propädeutik: (G.W.F. Hegel: Philosophische Propädeutik. Zweiter Kursus. Mittelklasse. Phänomenologie des Geistes und Logik. §61.) Der Zusammenhang der Akzidenzen in der Substanz ist ihre Notwendigkeit. Sie ist die Einheit der Möglichkeit und Wirk­lichkeit. Die Notwendigkeit ist blind, insofern der Zusammen­hang bloß ein innerer ist, oder insofern das Wirkliche nicht zugleich vorher als an sich seiende Einheit seiner Bestimmun­gen vorhanden ist, sondern aus der Beziehung derselben erst resultiert. https://www.marxists.org/deutsch/philosophie/hegel/propaed/k2-2-logik.htm

„Everywhere the proletariat develops in step with the bourgeoisie. In proportion, as the bourgeoisie grows in wealth, the proletariat grows in numbers.“

—  Friedrich Engels, kniha Principles of Communism

Principles of Communism (1847)
Kontext: Everywhere the proletariat develops in step with the bourgeoisie. In proportion, as the bourgeoisie grows in wealth, the proletariat grows in numbers. For, since the proletarians can be employed only by capital, and since capital extends only through employing labor, it follows that the growth of the proletariat proceeds at precisely the same pace as the growth of capital. Simultaneously, this process draws members of the bourgeoisie and proletarians together into the great cities where industry can be carried on most profitably, and by thus throwing great masses in one spot it gives to the proletarians a consciousness of their own strength. Moreover, the further this process advances, the more new labor-saving machines are invented, the greater is the pressure exercised by big industry on wages, which, as we have seen, sink to their minimum and therewith render the condition of the proletariat increasingly unbearable. The growing dissatisfaction of the proletariat thus joins with its rising power to prepare a proletarian social revolution.

„What each individual wills is obstructed by everyone else, and what emerges is something that no one willed.“

—  Friedrich Engels

Letter to Jean-Richard Bloch http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1890/letters/90_09_21.htm (September 21, 1890)

„Just as Marx used to say about the French Marxists of the late ’seventies: All I know is that I am not a Marxist.“

—  Friedrich Engels

Letter to Conrad Schmidt http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1890/letters/90_08_05.htm (August 5, 1890)

„We are now approaching a social revolution, in which the old economic foundations of monogamy will disappear just as surely as those of its complement, prostitution. Monogamy arose through the concentration of considerable wealth in one hand — a man's hand — and from the endeavor to bequeath this wealth to the children of this man to the exclusion of all others. This necessitated monogamy on the woman's, but not on the man's part. Hence this monogamy of women in no way hindered open or secret polygamy of men. Now, the impending social revolution will reduce this whole care of inheritance to a minimum by changing at least the overwhelming part of permanent and inheritable wealth—the means of production—into social property. Since monogamy was caused by economic conditions, will it disappear when these causes are abolished?
One might reply, not without reason: not only will it not disappear, but it will rather be perfectly realized. For with the transformation of the means of production into collective property, wagelabor will also disappear, and with it the proletariat and the necessity for a certain, statistically ascertainable number of women to surrender for money. Prostitution disappears and monogamy, instead of going out of existence, at last becomes a reality—for men also.
At all events, the situation will be very much changed for men. But also that of women, and of all women, will be considerably altered. With the transformation of the means of production into collective property the monogamous family ceases to be the economic unit of society. The private household changes to a social industry. The care and education of children become? a public matter. Society cares equally well for all children, legal or illegal. This removes the care about the "consequences" which now forms the essential social factor—moral and economic—hindering a girl to surrender unconditionally to the beloved man. Will not this be sufficient cause for a gradual rise of a more unconventional intercourse of the sexes and a more lenient public opinion regarding virgin honor and female shame? And finally, did we not see that in the modern world monogamy and prostitution, though antitheses, are inseparable and poles of the same social condition? Can prostitution disappear without engulfing at the same time monogamy?“

—  Friedrich Engels

The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (1804) as translated by Ernest Untermann (1902); Full English text of The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1884/origin-family/index.htm - Full original-language German text of The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State http://www.mlwerke.de/me/me21/me21_025.htm

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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